For instance, time averaging of geohistorical records--the accumulation of bones, shells, and other material of different ages into the same sediment layer over time by biotic and abiotic burial and mixing processes, such as bioturbation
and waves--can "smooth out" much of the variability characteristic of many short-term observational or experimental "snapshots" that can obscure long-term trends (NRC 2005).
The source of Si and Al extracted with NaOH may therefore be a mixture of poorly crystallised silicates (sources of Si and Al) and/or bio-opal (source of Si) transported downwards by processes such as illuviation and/or bioturbation
(Saccone et al.
These strata are rich in fossils, including macro- and microremains of agnathans and fishes, conodonts, diverse shelly fauna and associations of invertebrate microfossils, with intense bioturbation
and Skolithos trace fossils (Nestor 1990; Vinn & Wilson 2013; Marss & Nestor 2014), altogether indicating shallowwater environment.
in this context refers to deviations from the plane of the sediment-water interface (such as ridges and mounds, burrows and hole) created by the movement of organisms such as sea stars and fishes or organisms such as mud urchins through the upper centimeters of the sediment.
textures and trace fossils characterize this unit.
Purchasing Department, University of Bergen, on behalf of the Department of Geosciences (GEO) at the University of Bergen, is planning to buy Komputer tomography system (CT-scans) that can perform a 3D CT volume reconstruction of geological materials, covering all types of applications, within all types of sediment archives (consolidated or non-consolidated), mapping of 3D cracks in rock or sediment-rock material or bioturbation
footprint, boundaries, grain-size distibusjon down to clay grain size in 3D.
However, some local maxima were observed probably due to bioturbation
and local nitrification processes.
and micritization are the main diagenetic features affected on this microfacies.
Therefore, one may assume PAHs fluxes from: a) deposits of sediment acting as PAHs sources to the sediment layer, b) desorbed PAHs from sediment particles behaving like a sink as they are spread by turbulence-driven diffusion and bioturbation
2008) connected the domination of cyanobacteria with their preferred germination conditions, and stressed that temperature, resuspension, and bioturbation
are driving factors in their recruitment.
After a time increment [delta]t has been made and bioturbation
has changed the concentrations in the various volume elements, reaction  is allowed to go to stoichiometric completion in each volume element, thereby completely using up whichever is the limiting reagent, FeS or [O.
In soft-bottom marine communities, bioturbation
(biotic disturbance) resulting from the activities of macrobenthos (animals retained on a 500-[micro]m sieve) can drastically alter the physical and chemical properties of sediments (Rhoads, 1974; Schink and Guinasso, 1977; Aller, 1978; Rice, 1986; Rice et al.