To evaluate whether breeding areas represent distinct lineages or form a panmictic population, we compared haplotypic frequencies from the maternally inherited mtDNA control region and allelic frequencies from 12 biparentally
inherited autosomal microsatellite loci and two sex-linked microsatellite loci.
Meyer's team will now try to wrest biparentally
inherited nuclear DNA from a Sima fossil in hopes of getting a better look at how evolution played out among populations that set the stage for H.
We tested for historical sex-biased dispersal by comparing the genetic divergence observed between sampling groups at a sex-linked marker (mtDNA) to that observed at biparentally
inherited markers (Prugnolle & de Meeus 2002).
This discrepancy between the uni- and biparentally
inherited gene trees can best be explained by considering that D.
It is argued that neutral, biparentally
inherited DNA variants also suggest a similar yet separate history for Polynesian and central/eastern Micronesian populations (Friedlaender, et al.
Testing this hypothesis would require a biparentally
inherited marker, such as from the nuclear genome (see Fig.
For this reason, recent studies have attempted to utilize the paternally inherited Y chromosome as well as biparentally
inherited autosomal genetic markers to study the relatedness and histories of populations.
It became evident however, that analysis of nuclear DNA loci is necessary in studies of hybridization as a means to overcome some of the sampling restrictions of allozyme analysis and to provide a survey of biparentally
inherited genes (Verspoor and Hammar, 1991).
Examination of this Y-chromosome marker might determine if a paternally inherited element is concordant with patterns seen with biparentally
inherited nuclear genes, as has been shown for Mus using the Sry system (Tucker et al.
By contrasting the distribution of these uniparentally inherited cytoplasmic markers with biparentally
inherited nuclear markers, estimates of the relative contribution of pollen dispersal, seed dispersal, and the breeding system to patterns of genetic variation can be obtained (Ennos 1994, McCauley 1994).
Consequently, an analysis of the population structure of an angiosperm species is particularly informative when cpDNA markers are utilized in combination with nuclear, biparentally
inherited markers, such as allozymes, exhibiting a mode of dispersal unbiased by gender due to migration through pollen as well as seed (Ennos 1994; McCauley 1994, 1995).
Until recently, most surveys of natural populations were restricted to biparentally
inherited markers (primarily allozymes), which allow inferences only about the total amount of gene flow.