'liquid.' According to medieval physiology there were four chief liquids in the human body, namely blood, phlegm, bile, and black bile
, and an excess of any of them produced an undue predominance of the corresponding quality; thus, an excess of phlegm made a person phlegmatic, or dull; or an excess of black bile
The word "bile" is sometimes used to mean "anger" or "bitterness," because centuries ago people believed that these feelings were controlled by bodily fluids called "black bile
" and "yellow bile." But your bile has nothing at all to do with anger or any other emotion.
He attributed it to an excess of black bile
- one of the four basic humours explained by the Greek physician as vital bodily fluids that affect temperaments.
(I'm also turning to gin.) I'm failing at keeping my cool, reading the news and feeling that black bile
swell up whenever I come across the latest outrage.
Galen's Theory of Black Bile
: Hippocratic Tradition, Manipulation, Innovation
"too heavy and too viscid blood," rather than "a redundance of black bile
The humoral system contended that the humours -- black bile
, yellow bile, phlegm and blood -- needed to exist in equilibrium lest they trigger illness and malaise in both body and mind.
It also meant that it is nourishing according to standard humoral physiology, the dominant system of medicine since ancient times which posited that health was a balance between four humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile
. This recipe, being hot and moist, would help generate good blood.
The procedure was based on a flawed scientific theory that humans possessed (https://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/shakespeare/fourhumors.html) four "humours" (fluids): blood, phlegm, black bile
and yellow bile.
Galen, the ancient Greek physician, believed that the balance of the 4 humors within the body--blood, black bile
, yellow bile, and phlegm--could determine the temperament and health of an individual.
With gushes of thick black bile
oozing from his mouth, Salazar tells Henry, 'Find Sparrow for me and relay a message from Capitan Salazar, and tell him death will come straight for him.'
(13) Yet, there was a physiological twist in the theory of inspiration put forward by Renaissance Neoplatonists: for them, inspiration went hand-in-hand with black bile
or melancholy, which they understood to account for exceptional genius and predispose towards the reception of divine inspiration.