Some five kilometres (three miles) below the surface, the trench is home to the world's deepest known "black smoker
" vents, so-called for the cloudy fluid that gushes from them.
Again, as indicated in the work's title, we see in these drawings the cracks in the ocean floor (where sea water enters the earth's crust to later reappear through a black smoker
) as well as a delicate layering of abstract forms.
Previously, scientists looked at "black smoker
" vents, chimney-like structures that form when yen' hot water--reaching 370 degrees Celsius--breaks through the ocean floor and meets frigid ocean water.
Chief scientist and expedition leader, Tim McConachy from CSIRO Exploration and Mining, says, "We will be using an impressive arsenal of hi-tech equipment to locate and sample hot spring and 'black smoker
' activity in water depths between 100 and 3,000 m.
Go to www.amnh.org, click on Black Smoker
Expedition, and then click on Alvin.
Two of these species, Rimicaris exoculata (Williams and Rona, 1986) and Rimicaris sp., live in massive swarms on the sides of black smoker
And having found yet more "black smoker
" vents on an undersea mountain nearby, the researchers suggest that deep-sea vents may be more widespread around the world than anyone thought.
Pressing my face to the 4.5-inch-round window, I have just encountered my first black smoker
hydrothermal vent, where hot fluids, laden with chemicals and minerals, spew like smoke from chimney-like rock formations.
Strain 121, an archaean (formerly called bacteria) discovered in a "black smoker
" thermal vent deep in the Pacific Ocean, holds the record for being the "hottest organism known to man." Isolated in 2003, strain 121 is thought to have possibilities in the treatment of toxic waste as well as high-temperature detergents, based on its heat-resistant degradative enzymes (Kashefi and Lovley 2003).
chimneys precipitate copper-iron sulphides and anhydrite on mixing with ambient temperature sea water, while lower temperature hydrothermal flows (typically 260-300 [degrees] C) precipitate iron-zinc sulphides and silica.