Different cost effective adsorbents have been used for the removal of arsenic such as iron oxide coated fungal biomass , methylated yeast biomass , modified fungal biomass, residue rice polish , acid-washed crab shells, modified fungal biomass [129,130], modified coconut coir pith , modified cotton cellulose , bone char
, shrimp shells , saw dust of spruce (Picea abies) that is chemically modified , HDTMA modified zeolite , iron-coated zeolite  and surfactant-modified zeolite .
meets these specifications and has low cost, as it is made from waste from the meat industry.
Sugar may be of concern to vegans who avoid sugar that has been whitened using cow bone char
Description: OSHO is using bone char
(burned animal bones) to create a filtering system to remove fluoride from community water sources in the Oromia Region.
Not all sugars are vegan, as cane sugar is sometimes filtered through bone char
But, if you use pure white sugar (the most common type), you probably are putting bone char
in your drink.
Also new at The Water Exchange is an informative YouTube video on how to remove fluoride from municipal water using three methods: activated alumina, bone char
carbon and reverse osmosis filtration.
Believe it or not, there are even vegan sugars out there--that is, sugars not processed with animal-derived bone char
in the refinement process.
Refined sugars are often processed with bone char
, made from cow or dog bones, so they're out as well.
If you're a really committed vegan, you steer clear of white and brown sugar as well, which are frequently processed with bone char
, and gelatin, which is derived from collagen (an animal protein).
Literature survey reveals that various economical materials have been utilized for the adsorption of arsenic such as shrimp shells modified coconut coir pith methylated yeast biomass acid-washed crab shells bone char
iron oxide coated fungal biomass modified fungal biomass residue rice polish modified cotton cellulose spruce saw dust HDTMA-modified zeolite modified orange waste gel surfactant- modified zeolite iron-coated zeolite and coconut fiber [13-27].
The products most strongly rejected by all segments of respondents are products made from feathers, products made from human hair, products whitened by filtering through bone char
though bone char
is not actually in the food, ingredients that originally started from lanolin, and fruit covered with a wax from an insect secretion.