(4) in diagnosing Takayasu arteritis consists of three major criteria, including the left and right mid-sub-clavian artery lesions and characteristic signs and symptoms lasting for at least 1 month and 10 minor criteria: a high ESR, carotid artery tenderness, hypertension, aortic regurgitation or annuloaortic ectasia, pulmonary artery lesion, left mid-common carotid lesion, distal brachiocephalic
trunk lesion, descending thoracic aorta lesion, abdominal aorta lesion, and coronary artery lesion.
artery, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery measured 13 mm, 6 mm, and 11 mm in diameter, respectively.
If there is an unexplained chest pain and hypotension right after the dialysis is started, the dialysis must be aborted immediately and the position and functions of the catheter must be checked.4 The NKF-DOQI guideline recommends routine chest X-rays to detect potential complications and to verify the placement of the catheter after jugular and subclavian catheter insertion.5 The distal tip of the malpositioned catheter may be localized in an improper vein (contralateral subclavian, contralateral brachiocephalic
or internal mammarian vein).6 Internal thoracic vein, the internal mammarian vein and the pulmonary arteries are the most reported locations for malpositioned central venous catheters.
The venous was drained from thyroid gland via inferior thyroid vein to left brachiocephalic
Chest radiograph (A) shows near complete white-out of right hemithorax causing mediastinal shift and leftward tracheal deviation.Sagittal CT images (B and C) show a huge approximately 16 x 16 x 12 cm mediastinal mass occupying the entire right hemithorax with mass effect, encasing all major vessels leading to severe compression of superior vena cava and bilateral brachiocephalic
Yasa et al reported CCA to be injured in 9/18 cases (50%), ECA in 4/18 cases (22.2%), ICA in 3/18 cases (16.6%) and brachiocephalic
artery in 2/18 cases (11.1%)10.
The arteries from the cephalic extremities originate in the aortic arch, through the common carotid artery in the left half (directly) or through the brachiocephalic
trunk in the right half (indirectly); the external carotid artery is distributed to the anatomic structures located in the neck, visceral cranium and calvaria.
CT study of the thorax revealed a nodule, 32x20 mm in diameter, located posterior to the manubrium sterni and in front of the left brachiocephalic
More rarely cases of LSIVC, possible routes for the return of blood to RA are via the azygos vein to SVC, via the left brachiocephalic
vein to the right SVC, or via the hemiazygos vein to PLSVC(3).
The vein between the CS and left brachiocephalic
vein is called a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC), which finally drained into the right atrium.