Pemberton & Cordo 2001) revealed the occurrence of at least 8 or 9 parasitoids, among which the braconid
Apanteles alexanderi Brethes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was the most frequent, with parasitism rates as high as 30%.
Some of the thousands of different species of these wasps, one to two millimeters in length, found around orchards include: Braconid
wasps (family Braconidae); Ichneumonid wasps (family Ichneumonidae); Chalcidoid wasps (family Chalcidoidea); Chalcid wasps (family Chalcididae); Eulophid wasps (family Eulophidae); Trichogramma wasps (family Trichogrammatidae); Mymarid wasps (family Mymaridae).
Parasitoids imported into California for quarantine studies include braconid
parasitoids reared from wild olive fruit fly, (A) Psyttalia lounsburyi, (B) Bracon celer and (C) Utetes africanus, as well as braconid
parasitoids reared on other fruit fly species, including (D) Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, (E) D.
However, Idowu reported the braconid
parasite, Euphorus sahlbergella as a parasite of the nymphs of S.
5%) was medium-sized arthropods (3-7 mm), consisting of all specimens of Cataglyphis aenescens, the halictid bee, the braconid
wasp, two spiders (Micaria rossica, Oxyopes globifer) and one lepidopteran larva.
Example topics are gall-inducing scale insects, the phylogeny of gall midges, dipteran leaf miners, the biology and evolution of braconid
gall wasps, and gall flies on Myrtaceae as a mutualistic association between flies and nematodes.
Whitfield of the University" of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has found evidence that in the braconid
wasp family at least, the advent of the symbiotic relationship dates to ancient times.
Chen's 1999 and 2000 surveys of three orchards in southern, central, and northern France revealed 65 parasite species, including braconid
wasps and tachinid flies, that attack the pests.
The hornworm pictured below has been parasitized by a natural enemy, the Braconid
Diptera: Tephritidae) and associated braconid
parasitoids from native and exotic hosts in southeastern Bahia, Brazilian Environ.
In Hawaii, ARS scientist Tim Wong and colleagues used the braconid
Seasonal changes in the braconid
densities seemed less variable in all of the treatments (Fig.