Branchial clefts

Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia.
Related to Branchial clefts: Pharyngeal cleft, Reichert's cartilage, branchial sinus, branchial fistula
the openings between the branchial arches through which water passes.
See under Branchial.

See also: Branchial, Cleft

References in periodicals archive ?
They arise as a result of an abnormal development of the branchial arches and their corresponding ectoderm-lined branchial clefts.
The fetal branchial apparatus develops in the 2nd gestational week and consists of 6 pairs of mesodermal arches separated by 5 ectoderm-lined branchial clefts externally and 5 endoderm-lined pharyngeal pouches internally.
43) For this reason, first branchial cleft cysts, which represent the second-most common branchial cleft anomaly, can arise anywhere from the external auditory canal through the parotid gland to the submandibular triangle.
As development progresses, the second branchial arch proliferates caudally and encloses the second, third, and fourth branchial clefts creating an ectodermally lined cavity, the cervical sinus.
Cysts, fistulae, and sinuses arising from the branchial clefts or pouches are relatively uncommon in humans and domestic animals, and have never been reported in birds.
Fusion with the epicardial ridge results in an ectoderm-lined cavity, the cervical sinus of His, which encloses the second, third, and fourth branchial clefts.
18) The cysts arise from the third and fourth branchial clefts, and, therefore, thymic cysts may have a similar appearance to third and fourth branchial cleft cysts, being differentiated only by the presence of thymic tissue within thymic cysts.
As normal development proceeds, the branchial clefts and pouches are obliterated, except for the unique first cleft.
Adjacent arches are separated externally by ectodermal branchial clefts or grooves and internally by endodermal pouches.
However, in general, the branchial apparatus structures develop between the 4th and 6th week of gestation and consist of 6 pairs of mesodermal branchial arches separated by 5 paired endodermal pharyngeal pouches internally and 5 paired ectodermal branchial clefts externally.
A developmental alteration of the branchial clefts or pouches can result in cysts, sinuses, and/or fistulas.
Cysts, sinuses and fistula of the neck arising from the first and second branchial clefts.