And he served two and a half years in federal prison, which is a huge break from the seven years he was sentenced to serve but equal to the sentence served by his bribee
, former Department of Human Services Deputy Director Steven Jones.
The Anti-Bribery Law broadly defines a bribee
as any public servant who solicits, accepts or receives for himself or for others, a gift or payment of any sort, or a promise thereof, as consideration for any act that impinges on the integrity of office.
In contrast, corruption in anocracies, or during the transition stage from an autocratic to a more democratic government, is usually accompanied by a decrease in efficiency (e.g., a briber pays, but the bribee
fails to deliver due to the weakening political power of corrupt officials).
But he also expounded on the dynamics of corruption, the bribee
and the briber, the latter being the former's necessary partner.
First, in some of the most infamous cases of bribery, a briber is caught on tape offering or giving a bribee
a briefcase full of cash in return for some official act.
Despite using the term "passive" to refer to the conduct of the bribee
, neither side is truly passive since both the briber and bribee
must agree before a bribe can occur.
1120, 1121 (2009) ("A bribe is the payment by a briber of something of value to the bribee
in exchange for the bribee
acting both in the briber's interest and contrary to the bribee
's own duties." (citing Stuart P.
Trustworthiness of National Bureaucrat as Honest Bribee
. Research argues that there are two sides of trust that have important implications for corruption (Tonoyan, 2003; Tonoyan, Perlitz, & Wittmann, 2004).
In partial contrast to the political focus on power, discretion, and accountability, the economic theory of corruption locates the main determinants at the level of available benefits, the risk of corrupt deals, and the relative bargaining power of briber and bribee
. AaLike much of the academic literature, this approach postulates that corruption is a "crime of calculation not passion," and is therefore subject to rational justification.
This is particularly likely to be true for corrupt behavior where there are no impartial observers, and the only witnesses to the breaking of rules are the briber and the bribee
." (72) As Joseph Berliner pointed out, many forms of enterprise-level impropriety undertaken by managers to fulfill plans implicated almost all employees of that enterprise.
There is also a risk that competitive pressures may actually increase theft from the government (or, corruption with theft in which neither the briber nor the bribee
has an incentive to report the corrupt transaction).
The book's third and fourth reasons why corruption is always bad focus on the effects produced on the briber and bribee
. On the briber side, "corruption can contribute to an uncertain business climate" (p.