Selective bronchial arteriography was consequently performed and it showed tortuous, dilated, and elongated branches of the bronchial artery
in the region of the right lower lobe bronchus [Figure 1]d.
The abnormal angiographic signs that support the diagnosis of feeding vessels responsible for bleeding include contrast extravasation into the bronchial lumen, arterial enlargement, hypervascularity, tortuosity, vascular aneurysm/pseudoaneurysm, vessel cut off, and bronchial artery
to pulmonary artery or vein shunting (2, 4-7).
Technological advances have enabled a more effective management, especially with the introduction of bronchial artery
embolization and the improvements in computed tomography and bronchoscopy.
Because of his pulmonary condition, a bronchial artery
haemorrhage was suspected, so he underwent urgent Multidetector Computed Tomography (MD-CT).
The present study was intended to evaluate the role of various co-morbid risk factors in bronchial artery
embolisation (BAE) for managing haemoptysis.
The blood supply to lungs occur through bronchial artery
which is subjected to vasoconstriction in the absence of ventilation and can lead to ischemic injury to lungs13-16.
(2015) studied the branching patterns by computed tomography and reported that the most frequent variation (24.03%) corresponded to a left bronchial artery
originating directly from the thoracic aorta and the right bronchial artery
originating from the intercostobrachial trunk (type II Cauldwell) .
The patient developed hemoptysis 45 minutes after talc injection through the chest tube and immediately required a bronchial artery
embolization (Figure 2).
(3) In our cases, we discussed the anomalies of pulmonary vessels leading to decreased pulmonary artery pressures, bronchial artery
hypertrophy, and hemoptysis.
Hughes-Stovin syndrome (HSS) is a very rare clinical entity, which is characterized by peripheral venous thrombosis and multiple pulmonary and/or bronchial artery
aneurysms and is associated with a high mortality.
In 1979 Hellekant  discussed the use of intra-arterial mitomycin via bronchial artery
administration in the treatment of bronchogenic carcinoma, where great emphasis was placed on the potential for devastating neurologic damage from spillover into spinal cord perfusion beds.