ETIOLOGY POSSIBLE DIAGNOSES Pulmonary Exercise-induced hyperventilation (pseudo-asthma syndrome) Restrictive lung disease Cystic fibrosis Upper and lower respiratory infections Foreign body aspiration Cardiac Coronary artery disease Congenital and acquired heart defects Cardiomyopathy Congestive heart failure Laryngeal Exercise-induced laryngeal dysfunction Vocal cord dysfunction Laryngeal prolapse Laryngomalacia Gastroesophageal Gastroesophageal reflux disease Allergic Exercise-induced anaphylaxis Other Athlete is out of shape EIB, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction
. Source: Weiler JM, et al.
FORADIL AEROLIZER is for the long-term, twice-daily (morning and evening) administration in the maintenance treatment of bronchoconstriction
in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) including chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
The inflammation results in narrowed, swollen airways and increased mucus, and frequently is accompanied by constriction of the smooth muscle in the airways, or bronchoconstriction
, causing difficulty breathing and the familiar wheeze often associated with the disease.
Clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe beta-blockers to COPD patients out of fear that they will induce bronchoconstriction
and exacerbate their disease, the report explains.
Respiratory diseases like asthma and COPD are mostly treated with inhaled drugs in order to relieve bronchoconstriction
and target inflammation in the lungs.
CysLT1 receptor antagonists block allergen- and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction
in asthmatic subjects and acutely bronchodilate moderate to severe asthmatic subjects.
Moreover, as the chronic nature of the disease is airways inflammation that leads to varying levels of bronchial tube constriction, physicians must put more emphasis upon treating the cause (inflammation) to prevent the effect (bronchoconstriction
The products of the 5-1ipoxygenase pathway include the leukotrienes LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4, which are potent inflammatory mediators that can act to (1) induce mucus secretion, bronchoconstriction
of the airway, and edema of the nasal mucosa and (2) attract eosinophils into the airways.
(EIB) affects a broad spectrum of the active population, and with pollen season in full force and effect, it helps to look closer at what many outdoor enthusiasts may be suffering from, and to examine what it takes to alleviate it.
Finally, over-breathing can cause the muscles in the airway walls to narrow (bronchoconstriction
Both inflammation and bronchoconstriction
cause airways to narrow, leading to symptoms that include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and chest tightness.
Archara's mother and grandmother should also be involved in the educational plan and be educated on the need for preventive medications (inhaled corticosteroids) and quick-relief medications to reduce bronchoconstriction
. You should explore with Archara's mother and grandmother different ways to reduce environmental triggers, for example, using alternative ways to pray such as using the incense outside and praying without incense (Giger & Davidhizar, 2004).