In our case, delay in diagnosis was also due to the location of the abscess that prevented collection of appropriate samples because of risks of bronchopleural
It can be perforated into the peritoneal cavity, bronchopleural
spaces, stomach, and colon (3,4).
Many surgeries are being performed via open and video-assisted techniques for a variety of conditions including resection of benign and malignant tumors of the lung, mediastinum and pleura, repair of bronchopleural
fistula, trachea- bronchial reconstruction, esophageal surgery, flexible/ rigid bronchoscopies, airway surgery, and diagnostic thoracoscopies.
After complete drainage of air from the pleural cavity, that is, full lung expansion as evidenced by clinicoradiologically and ensuring the absence of any bronchopleural
or alveolopleural fistula features, chemical pleurodesis with povidone-iodine (10%) was performed using the method described by Olivares-Torres et al .
Injury to lung parenchyma, lung vessels, aorta, thoracic duct, and mediastinal structures including heart, esophagus, diaphragm, vagus nerve, and solid abdominal organs such as liver, spleen, bowel, and formation of bronchopleural
fistula does exist.
fistulas were obliterated using a musculocutaneous flap of serratus anterior after de-epithelization.
Out of 8 empyema patients who failed, 4 patients had associated Bronchopleural
fistula and the rest had organised fluid, which could not be drained with catheter or streptokinase instillation.
Although NG tube application is generally considered safe, it can result in complications such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumonia, pulmonary hemorrhage, empyema, hemothorax, mediastinitis, bronchopleural
fistula, perforation .
Pneumothorax, hydropneumothorax, empyema, and bronchopleural
fistula are other uncommon RA pleural complications, and the treatment can be challenging .
There were no cases of bronchopleural
fistula and no deaths occurred during IBAP treatment.
fistulas: an overview of the problem with special focus on endoscopic management," Chest, vol.
 classified them as follows: rupture of bullae or blebs directly under the pleura during chemotherapy, formation of bronchopleural
fistulas secondary to tumor necrosis, development of pleural lesions secondary to damage to the lung parenchyma induced by chemotherapy or radiation therapy, formation of cavities or emphysematous lesions in the peripheral tissues with subsequent rupture by the check-valve mechanism because of obstruction or stenosis of bronchi due to tumors, and elevation of intrathoracic pressure caused by vomiting as a side effect of chemotherapy, resulting in rupture of the pleura.