Otters, herons, marsh harriers and even brown rats
are among the many other predators that keep water voles constantly on their toes.
A study found 19 per cent of brown rats
collected in northern England and Wales were positive for SEOV.
SEOV was detected in wild brown rats
in the Netherlands in 2013, but no human cases had been reported.
Historically Rattus species (both black and brown rats
) have been implicated in the emergence and spread of infectious diseases of human health importance such as plague, murine typhus, scrub typhus, leptospirosis and hemorrhagic fever.
(hazard analysis critical control point), in particular - mice (mus musculus), - field mice (apodemus sylticus), - brown rats
(ratus norvegicus), - cockroaches (blattella germanica), - cockroaches (blatta orientalis) - ants - fleas - cockroaches - dormice - flies - bed bugs - wasps - spiders - mites - remedy infestations - disinfect premises - get rid of premises requiring services of disinfection, deratting and disinsectisation
While black rats and house mice spread with agriculture over the course of millennia, it is only within the last few centuries that brown rats
That house was plagued by brown rats
; two of which got trapped in a water tank in the kitchen, so that they could not swim out of the water, and leap to safety.
Monospecific helminth and arthropod infections in an urban population of brown rats
from Doha, Qatar.
can grow 19 to 28cm in length, not counting their tail.
, which eat the eggs and the chicks of birds, are the problem.
[...] We inject a group of animals--dogs, cats--what about Brown rats
?--with a virus, something highly infectious, deadly to rats--our bio-chemists could easily come up with one--set them loose at certain points that Mr.
Now the UK population of brown rats
is peaking at 15 million and rising."