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next to; close to; a house by the sea; through the authority of: a study by the EPA; according to: a lousy movie by anyone’s standards; no later than: I’m usually home by late afternoon.
Not to be confused with:
buy – purchase: buy a car; to acquire by exchange or concession; to bribe: to buy votes; to accept or believe: I don’t buy that story.
bye – secondary matter; side issue; short for good-bye; incidentally: By the bye, how was the dinner?
Abused, Confused, & Misused Words by Mary Embree Copyright © 2007, 2013 by Mary Embree


budget year

by 1

1. Close to; next to: the window by the door.
2. With the use or help of; through: We came by the back road.
3. Up to and beyond; past: We drove by the house.
4. At or to: stopped by the bakery; came by the house.
5. In the period of; during: sleeping by day.
6. Not later than: by 5:30 pm.
a. In the amount of: letters by the thousands.
b. To the extent of: shorter by two inches.
a. According to: played by the rules.
b. With respect to: siblings by blood.
9. In the name of: swore by the Bible to tell the truth.
10. Through the agency or action of: was killed by a bullet.
11. Used to indicate a succession of specified individuals, groups, or quantities: One by one they left. They were persuaded little by little.
a. Used in multiplication and division: Multiply 4 by 6 to get 24.
b. Used with measurements: a room 12 by 18 feet.
c. Toward. Used to express direction with points of the compass: south by east.
1. On hand; nearby: Stand by.
2. Aside; away: We put it by for later.
3. Up to, alongside, and past: The car raced by.
4. At or to one's home or current location: Stop by later today.
5. Into the past: as years go by.
by oneself
1. Without company; alone: went by herself.
2. Without help: wrote the book by myself.

[Middle English bi, be, from Old English bī, be; see ambhi in Indo-European roots.]

by 2

Variant of bye1.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


1. used to indicate the agent after a passive verb: seeds eaten by the birds.
2. used to indicate the person responsible for a creative work: this song is by Schubert.
3. via; through: enter by the back door.
4. followed by a gerund to indicate a means used: he frightened her by hiding behind the door.
5. beside; next to; near: a tree by the house.
6. passing the position of; past: he drove by the old cottage.
7. not later than; before: return the books by Tuesday.
8. used to indicate extent, after a comparative: it is hotter by five degrees than it was yesterday.
9. (esp in oaths) invoking the name of: I swear by all the gods.
10. (Mathematics) multiplied by: four by three equals twelve.
11. (in habitual sentences) during the passing of (esp in the phrases by day, by night)
12. (Surveying) placed between measurements of the various dimensions of something: a plank fourteen inches by seven.
13. near: the house is close by.
14. away; aside: he put some money by each week for savings.
15. passing a point near something; past: he drove by.
16. Scot past; over and done with: that's a' by now.
17. Scot aside; behind one: you should put that by for later.
n, pl byes
a variant spelling of bye1
[Old English bī; related to Gothic bi, Old High German , Sanskrit abhi to, towards]


the internet domain name for
(Computer Science) Belarus
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014



prep., adv., adj., n., pl. byes. prep.
1. near to or next to: a home by a lake.
2. over the surface of, through the medium of, along, or using as a route: She came by air.
3. on, as a means of conveyance: to arrive by ship.
4. to and beyond a place; past: We drove by the church.
5. during: by day; by night.
6. not later than: I'll be done by five o'clock.
7. to the extent or amount of: taller by three inches.
8. from the evidence or authority of: By his own account he was there.
9. according to: a bad movie by any standards.
10. through the agency of: The booklet was issued by the government.
11. from the hand or invention of: a poem by Emily Dickinson.
12. as a result or on the basis of: We met by chance.
13. in support of; for: to do well by one's children.
14. (of things in succession) after; next after: piece by piece.
15. (in multiplication) taken the number of times as that specified by the second number, or multiplier: Multiply 18 by 57.
16. (in measuring shapes, spaces, etc.) with another dimension of: a room 10 feet by 12 feet.
17. (in division) separated into the number of equal parts as that specified by the second number, or divisor: Divide 99 by 33.
18. in terms or amounts of: Apples are sold by the bushel.
19. begot or born of: She had a son by her first husband.
20. (of quadrupeds) having as a sire: Equipoise II by Equipoise.
21. one point toward on the compass: N by NE.
22. to, into, or at: Come by my office this afternoon.
23. at hand; near: The school is close by.
24. to and beyond a point; past: The car drove by.
25. aside; away: to lay by money for retirement.
26. to or at someone's home, office, etc.: Stop by later.
27. past; over: in times gone by.
28. situated to one side: a by passage.
29. incidental: a by comment.
30. bye 1 .
1. by and by, before long; presently.
2. by and large, in general; on the whole.
Also, bye.
[before 900; Middle English; Old English ]





a combining form of by1: by-product; bystander. Compare bye-.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. used in passives

By is most often used in passive sentences. If something is done or caused by a person or thing, that person or thing does it or causes it.

This view has been challenged by a number of researchers.
I was surprised by his anger.
He was knocked down by a bus.

When an -ed word is used like an adjective to describe a state rather than an action, it is not always followed by by. Some -ed words are followed by with or in.

The room was filled with flowers.
The walls of her flat are covered in dirt.
2. used with time expressions

If something happens by a particular time, it happens at or before that time.

I'll be home by seven o'clock.
By 1995 the population had grown to 3 million.

Be Careful!
By can only be used with this meaning as a preposition. Don't use it as a conjunction. Don't say, for example, 'By I had finished my lunch, we had to leave'. You say 'By the time I had finished my lunch, we had to leave'.

By the time I went to bed, I was exhausted.
3. used to describe position

You can use by to say that someone or something is at the side of a person or object.

I sat by her bed.
She lives in a cottage by the sea.

Be Careful!
Don't use 'by' with the names of towns or cities. Don't say, for example, 'I was by Coventry when I ran out of petrol'. You say 'I was near Coventry when I ran out of petrol'.

Mandela was born near Elliotdale.
4. saying how something is done

By can be used with some nouns to say how something is done. You don't usually put a determiner in front of the noun.

Can I pay by credit card?
I always go to work by bus.
He sent the form by email.

However, if you want to say that something is done using a particular object or tool, you often use with, rather than 'by'. With is followed by a determiner.

Clean the mirrors with a soft cloth.
He brushed back his hair with his hand.

You can use by with an -ing form to say how something is achieved.

Make the sauce by boiling the cream and stock together in a pan.
We saved a lot of money by booking our holiday online.
Collins COBUILD English Usage © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 2004, 2011, 2012
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend: - so as to pass a given point; "every hour a train goes past" - in reserve; not for immediate use; "started setting aside money to buy a car"; "put something by for her old age"; "has a nest egg tucked away for a rainy day"
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


1. through, via, with the help of, by virtue of, with the aid of, under the aegis of, through the agency of The feast was served by his mother and sisters.
2. via, over, by way of The train passes by Oxford.
3. near, past, along, close to, closest to, neighbouring, next to, beside, nearest to, adjoining, adjacent to She was sitting in a rocking chair by the window.
4. before, prior to, earlier than, in advance of, no later than We all knew by then that the affair was practically over.
1. nearby, close, handy, at hand, within reach Large numbers of security police stood by.
2. away, aside, to one side They did not put the money by for a rainy day.
by and by presently, shortly, soon, eventually, one day, before long, in a while, anon, in the course of time, erelong (archaic or poetic) By and by the light gradually grew fainter.
by yourself
1. alone, separately, singly, on your own, on your tod, on your lonesome (informal), in a solitary state a dark-haired man sitting by himself in a corner
2. without help, independently, single-handedly, unassisted, without assistance, by your own effort She decided to learn to fly to prove she could do something all by herself.
Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002
بِواسِطَةجانِباحَسَبحَسَب، لِكُلخِلالِ الوَقْت
á meîanaf e-u/e-maf, meîeftir
arblakusgadījuma pēcgarāmlaikā
vidaveftergenom attmed
tarafındanvasıtasıylayakındayakınındanyanı başında


When by is the second element in a phrasal verb, eg go by, stand by, look up the verb. When it is part of a set combination, eg by chance, by degrees, by half, look up the other word.
1. (= close to) → al lado de, junto a
the house by the churchla casa que está al lado de or junto a la iglesia
come and sit by meven y siéntate a mi lado or junto a
I've got it by melo tengo a mi lado
"where's the bank?" - "it's by the post office"-¿dónde está el banco? -está al lado de or junto a la oficina de correos
the house by the riverla casa que hay junto al río
BUT a holiday by the seaunas vacaciones en la costa
2. (= via) → por
he came in by the back door/by the windowentró por la puerta de atrás/por la ventana
which route did you come by?¿por dónde or por qué camino or por qué ruta viniste?
I went by Doverfui por Dover
3. (= past) → por delante de
she walked by mepasó por delante de
he rushed by me without seeing mepasó deprisa por delante de mí sin verme
we drove by the cathedralpasamos con el coche por delante de la catedral
4. (= during) by dayde día
by nightde noche
by day he's a bank clerk and by night he's a security guardde día es un empleado de banco y de noche es guarda de seguridad
BUT a postcard of London by night → una postal nocturna de Londres
5. (in expressions of time)
5.1. (= not later than) → para
we must be there by four o'clocktenemos que estar allí para las cuatro
can you finish it by tomorrow?¿puedes terminarlo para mañana?
I'll be back by midnightestaré de vuelta antes de or para la medianoche
applications must be submitted by 21 Aprillas solicitudes deben presentarse antes del 21 de abril
by the time I got there it was too latecuando llegué ya era demasiado tarde
it'll be ready by the time you get backestará listo para cuando regreses
by that time or by then I knewpara entonces ya lo sabía
5.2. (in year, on date, on day) by tomorrow/Tuesday, I'll be in Francemañana/el martes ya estaré en Francia
by yesterday it was clear thatayer ya se veía claro que ...
by 30 September we had spent £500a 30 de septiembre habíamos gastado 500 libras
by 1998 the figure had reacheden 1998 la cifra había llegado a ...
by 2010 the figure will have reachedhacia el año 2010 la cifra habrá llegado a ...
6. (indicating amount or rate) to reduce sth by a thirdreducir algo en una tercera parte
to rent a house by the monthalquilar una casa por meses
letters were arriving by the sackloadlas cartas llegaban a montones
it seems to be getting bigger by the minute/dayparece que va creciendo minuto a minuto/día a día
to sell sth by the dozenvender algo por docenas
we get paid by the hournos pagan por horas
we sell by the kilovendemos por kilos
we charge by the kilometrecobramos por kilómetro
little by littlepoco a poco
one by oneuno tras otro, uno a uno
two by twode dos en dos
7. (indicating agent, cause) → por
the thieves were caught by the policelos ladrones fueron capturados por la policíala policía capturó a los ladrones
BUT surrounded by enemies → rodeado de enemigos
a painting by Picassoun cuadro de Picasso
who's that song by?¿de quién es esa canción?
he had a daughter by his first wifetuvo una hija con su primera mujer
8. (indicating transport, method, etc)
by air [travel] → en avión; [send] → por avión, por vía aérea
by bus/caren autobús/coche
to pay by chequepagar con cheque
made by handhecho a mano
by landpor tierra
by the light of the moon/a candlea la luz de la luna/de una vela
by rail or trainen tren
by seapor mar
9. (with gerund) by working harda fuerza de mucho trabajar, trabajando mucho
he ended by saying thatterminó diciendo que ...
10. (= according to) → según
by my watch it's five o'clocksegún mi reloj son las cinco
by my calculationssegún mis cálculos
BUT to call sth by its proper name → llamar algo por su nombre
it's all right by mepor mí no hay problema or está bien
if that's okay by yousi no tienes inconveniente
11. (measuring difference) she missed the plane by a few minutesperdió el avión por unos minutos
we beat them to Joe's house by five minutesllegamos a casa de Joe cinco minutos antes que ellos
broader by a metreun metro más ancho
she's lighter than her brother by only a couple of poundspesa sólo un par de libras menos que su hermano
it's too short by a metrees un metro más corto de lo que tendría que ser
it missed me by inchesno me dio por un pelo, me pasó rozando
12. (in measurements, sums) a room 3 metres by 4una habitación de 3 metros por 4
to divide bydividir por or entre
to multiply bymultiplicar por
by oneselfsolo
he was all by himselfestaba solo
I did it all by myselflo hice yo solo
don't leave the two of them alone by themselvesno los dejes solos
14. (with compass point) north by northeastnornordeste
south by southwestsudsudoeste, sursuroeste
15. (in oaths) → por
I swear by Almighty Godjuro por Dios Todopoderoso
by heavenpor Dios
1. (= past) a train hurtled bypasó un tren a toda velocidad
they wouldn't let me byno me dejaban pasar
she rushed by without stoppingpasó a toda prisa, sin pararse
2. (in set expressions)
by and by I'll be with you by and byenseguida estoy contigo
you'll be sorry by and byno tardarás en arrepentirte
by and by we heard voicesal poco rato oímos unas voces
close or hard bymuy cerca
by and largeen general, por lo general
to put sth byponer algo a un lado
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005


The thieves were caught by the police → Les voleurs ont été arrêtés par la police.
killed by lightning → tué(e) par la foudre
(painted, composed, written by)de
a book by Balzac → un livre de Balzac
a painting by Picasso → un tableau de Picasso
(referring to method, manner, means) by bus → en autobus
by car → en voiture
by train → en train
to pay by cheque → payer par chèque
by saving hard, he ... → à force d'économiser, il ...
all by oneself (= without anyone else) → tout(e) seul(e)
all by himself → tout seul
all by herself → toute seule
I did it all by myself → Je l'ai fait tout seul.
(= via, through) → par
We came by Dover → Nous sommes venus par Douvres.
(= next to) → à côté de
"Where's the bank?" - - "It's by the post office." → "Où est la banque?" - - "Elle est à côté de la poste."
She sat by his bed
BUT Elle était assise à son chevet.
by the sea (= beside) → au bord de la mer
a holiday by the sea → des vacances au bord de la mer
(= not later than) → avant
We have to be there by 4 o'clock → Nous devons y être avant quatre heures.
(= during) by daylight → à la lumière du jour
by night → la nuit, de nuit
by this time tomorrow → d'ici demain à la même heure
by the time ... → quand ..., lorsque
By the time I got there it was too late → Quand or lorsque je suis arrivé, il était déjà trop tard.
It'll be ready by the time you get back → Ça sera prêt quand or lorsque vous reviendrez.
by the kilo → au kilo
by the metre → au mètre
paid by the hour → payé(e) à l'heure
to increase by the hour → augmenter d'heure en heure
(measure) to multiply by 3 → multiplier par 3
to divide by 3 → diviser par 3
a room 3 metres by 4 → une pièce de 3 mètres sur 4
it's wider by a metre → c'est plus large d'un mètre
The bullet missed him by inches → La balle est passée à quelques centimètres de lui.
(= according to) → d'après, selon
it's 3 o'clock by my watch
BUT il est 3 heures à ma montre.
it's all right by me, that's fine by me → je n'ai rien contre, ça me va.
by and by adv (= soon) → un peu plus tard, bientôt
by and large adv (= on the whole) → dans l'ensemble
Collins English/French Electronic Resource. © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(= close to)bei, an (+dat); (with movement) → an (+acc); (= next to)neben (+dat); (with movement) → neben (+acc); by the window/fire/riveram or beim Fenster/Feuer/Fluss; by the churchan or bei der Kirche; a holiday (esp Brit) or vacation (US) by the seaFerien plan der See; come and sit by mekomm, setz dich neben mich; she sat by mesie saß neben mir; to keep something by oneetw bei sich haben
(= via)über (+acc)
(= past) to go/rush etc by somebody/somethingan jdm/etw vorbeigehen/-eilen etc
(time: = during) by day/nightbei Tag/Nacht
(time: = not later than) → bis; can you do it by tomorrow?kannst du es bis morgen machen?; by tomorrow I’ll be in Francemorgen werde ich in Frankreich sein; by the time I got there, he had gonebis ich dorthin kam, war er gegangen; but by that time or by then I had realized that …aber bis dahin war mir klar geworden, dass …; but by that time or by then it will be too lateaber dann ist es schon zu spät; but by that time or by then he will have forgottenaber bis dann or dahin hat er es schon vergessen; by nowinzwischen
(indicating amount) by the inch/kilo/hour/monthzoll-/kilo-/stunden-/monatsweise; one by oneeiner nach dem anderen; they came in two by twosie kamen paarweise herein; letters came in by the hundredhunderte or Hunderte von Briefen kamen
(indicating agent, cause) → von; killed by a bulletdurch eine or von einer Kugel getötet; indicated by an asteriskdurch Sternchen gekennzeichnet; a painting by Picassoein Bild von Picasso; surrounded byumgeben von
(indicating method, means, manner: see also nouns) by bus/car/bicyclemit dem or per Bus/Auto/Fahrrad; by land and (by) seazu Land und zu Wasser; to pay by cheque (Brit) or check (US) → mit Scheck bezahlen; made by handhandgearbeitet; made by machinemaschinell hergestellt; by daylight/moonlightbei Tag(eslicht)/im Mondschein; to know somebody by name/sightjdn dem Namen nach/vom Sehen her kennen; to be known by the name of …unter dem Namenbekannt sein; to lead somebody by the handjdn an der Hand führen; to grab somebody by the collarjdn am Kragen packen; he had a daughter by his first wifevon seiner ersten Frau hatte er eine Tochter; by myself/himself etcallein
by saving hard he managed to …durch eisernes Sparen or dadurch, dass er eisern sparte, gelang es ihm …; by turning this knobdurch Drehen dieses Knopfes, wenn Sie an diesem Knopf drehen; by saying that I didn’t mean …ich habe damit nicht gemeint; animals which move by wrigglingTiere, die sich schlängelnd fortbewegen; he could walk by supporting himself on …gestützt auf … könnte er gehen
(according to: see also nouns) → nach; to judge by appearancesnach dem Äußern urteilen; by my watch it is nine o’clocknach meiner Uhr ist es neun; if you play by the rules (fig)wenn du dich an die Regel hältst; by the terms of Article Igemäß or nach (den Bestimmungen von) Artikel I; to call somebody/something by his/its proper namejdn/etw beim richtigen Namen nennen; if it’s OK by you/him etcwenn es Ihnen/ihm etc recht ist; it’s all right by mevon mir aus gern or schon
(measuring difference) → um; broader by a footum einen Fuß breiter; it missed me by incheses verfehlte mich um Zentimeter
(Math, Measure) to divide/multiply bydividieren durch/multiplizieren mit; a room 20 feet by 30ein Zimmer 20 auf or mal 30 Fuß
(points of compass) South by South WestSüdsüdwest
(in oaths) → bei; I swear by Almighty Godich schwöre beim allmächtigen Gott; by heaven, I’ll get you for thisdas sollst or wirst du mir, bei Gott, büßen!
by the right! (Mil) → rechts, links …!
by the way or by(e)übrigens; all this is by the way or by(e) (= irrelevant)das ist alles Nebensache or zweitrangig
(= past) to pass/wander/rush etc byvorbei- or vorüberkommen/-wandern/-eilen etc
(= in reserve) to put or lay bybeiseitelegen
(phrases) by and byirgendwann; (with past tense) → nach einiger Zeit; by and largeim Großen und Ganzen


(Cricket) Lauf bei Bällen, die nicht vom Schlagmann geschlagen worden sind
bye (Sport) to get a bye into the second roundspielfrei in die zweite Runde kommen


nNachwahl f
(Brit: of community) → Gemeindeverordnung f; (of town) → städtische Verordnung
(of company, society etc) → Satzung f


bylaw, bye-law
nVerordnung f
(Press) Zeile mit dem Namen des Autors
(Ftbl) → Seitenlinie f; (at goal) → Tor(aus)linie f
nInbegriff m(for von); X is a by for tractorsX ist der Name für Traktoren


n (Theat) → Nebenhandlung f
n (lit, fig)Nebenprodukt nt


nUmstehende(r) mf, → Zuschauer m; innocent byunbeteiligter Zuschauer


nSeitenweg m ? highway
n to become a by for somethinggleichbedeutend mit etw werden
Collins German Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 7th Edition 2005. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007


(bai) preposition
1. next to; near; at the side of. by the door; He sat by his sister.
2. past. going by the house.
3. through; along; across. We came by the main road.
4. used (in the passive voice) to show the person or thing which performs an action. struck by a stone.
5. using. He's going to contact us by letter; We travelled by train.
6. from; through the means of. I met her by chance; by post.
7. (of time) not later than. by 6 o'clock.
8. during the time of.
9. to the extent of. taller by ten centimetres.
10. used to give measurements etc. 4 metres by 2 metres.
11. in quantities of. fruit sold by the kilo.
12. in respect of. a teacher by profession.
1. near. They stood by and watched.
2. past. A dog ran by.
3. aside; away. money put by for an emergency.
ˈbygones: let bygones be bygones
to forgive and forget past causes of ill-feeling.
ˈbypass noun
a road which avoids an obstruction or a busy area. Take the bypass round the city.
to avoid (a place) by taking such a road.
ˈby-product noun
something obtained or formed during the making of something else. Coal tar is a by-product of the process of obtaining gas from coal.
ˈbystander noun
a person who watches but does not take part.
by and by
after a short time. By and by, everyone went home.
by and large
mostly; all things considered. Things are going quite well, by and large.
by oneself
1. alone. He was standing by himself at the bus-stop.
2. without anyone else's help. He did the job (all) by himself.
by the way
incidentally. By the way, have you a moment to spare?

by is used for forms of transport: by train ; by aeroplane ; by land ; by sea
Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary © 2006-2013 K Dictionaries Ltd.


بِواسِطَة u af bei παρά por kautta par od da ・・・によって ...곁에서 door ved przez por силами vid โดย tarafından bởi 在...旁边
Multilingual Translator © HarperCollins Publishers 2009


prep. por, cerca de, al lado de, según;
___ dayde día, por el día;
___ nightde noche, por la noche.
English-Spanish Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
Collins Multilingual Translator © HarperCollins Publishers 2009