Marchand (1969: 293) points out that -HEAD is "an unexplained by-form
" of -HOOD.
(57.) It should be noted here that although Biblical Aramaic 'aruw is often cited as a by-form of 'aluw (e.g., HALOT, 1824, following Bauer and Leander.
Look!' of Biblical Aramaic, each of which he identifies as one of a "wide variety of by-forms related to [Ugaritic] hl." (54) Though the problems facing a connection between Hebrew halo' and Ugaritic hl have already been noted above, the feasibility of an etymological relationship with Aramaic hlwl 'aluw remains on the table for discussion here.
(11) See the Oxford English Dictionary (oed): 'A familiar by-form
of the name John; hence, a generic proper name for any representative of the common people' (I.1.a.).
One would lead us to suggest that it is an archaic spelling by-form of OE heden, for other spelling archaisms are recorded in this batch.
Even though the first condition for the acceptability of interpreting <haeden> as a by-form of OE heden has been met, this suggestion turns out to be quite problematic when we examine the second condition.
Editors and lexicographers hold braed to be a by-form
of braede and translate it as 'flesh', but, as has recently been shown by M.
Tirimtu, the name of a type of beverage container, should probably be regarded as a by-form
of tilimtu, a Sumerian loanword referring to a type of jar.
107, in his extraordinarily thorough overview of what is known about the Celtic presence in Anatolia].) One possibility is that [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] did in fact originally mean 'Peg-noses' (for it is hard to see why Epiphanius would have sald "[LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]" if it was not true), but that the existence of a homophonous or very similar word for 'badger', [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (vel sim.), gave rise to the interpretation 'Badger-noses', from which a by-form 'Molenoses' might then have arise n.
(16) Modern scholars have followed Epiphanius in interpreting [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as 'Peg-noses', but the existence of various by-forms without an initial dental stop (e.g., Ascodrobi and Ascodrugitae; see n.