calculi


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cal·cu·lus

 (kăl′kyə-ləs)
n. pl. cal·cu·li (-lī′) or cal·cu·lus·es
1. Medicine An abnormal concretion in the body, usually formed of mineral salts and found in the gallbladder, kidney, or urinary bladder, for example.
2. Dentistry See tartar.
3. Mathematics
a. The branch of mathematics that deals with limits and the differentiation and integration of functions of one or more variables.
b. A method of analysis or calculation using a special symbolic notation.
c. The combined mathematics of differential calculus and integral calculus.
4. A system or method of calculation: "[a] dazzling grasp of the nation's byzantine budget calculus" (David M. Alpern).

[Latin, small stone used in reckoning; see calculate.]
References in periodicals archive ?
Results: Urinalysis was identified as an invalid indicator for renal tract calculi in patients with acute flank pain.
The size of salivary calculi may vary from less than one millimeter to a few centimeters in the greatest diameter.
Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with symptomatic urinary calculi diagnosed by unenhanced helical CT.
1) Urinary tract infection is implicated as the cause of stones in about 15% of stone formers and it will complicate the management of pre-existent calculi.
Seventy five samples of renal and eighteen samples of supra gingival calculi of lead recycling workers were collected over the period of seven years (2008-2014) and studied for the accumulation of lead.
Struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) and calcium oxalate calculi are the most common canine uroliths followed by urate, silicate, cystine and mixed types.
Analysis of renal calculi is an essential step in the treatment of the patient with nephrolithiasis.
Two calculi were discovered in an 84-year-old woman who was a bedridden resident of a nursing home.
Methods: 135 patients with impacted upper ureteral calculi were selected and randomly divided into three groups (Group A-C) (n=45) which were treated with transurethral ureteroscopic lithotripsy minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy and retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy respectively.
Jan Rauch took the mathematical formulation, the Observational Calculi which was formulated by Petr Hajek and Tomas Havranek to understand how the association rules can able to support the scientific hypotheses verification.
A survey of computational calculi used in musical applications