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A tropical fever once believed to be caused by the heat.

[Spanish calentura, from calentar, to heat, from Latin calēns, calent-, present participle of calēre, to be warm; see kelə- in Indo-European roots.]


(Pathology) a mild fever of tropical climates, similar in its symptoms to sunstroke
[C16: from Spanish calentura fever, ultimately from Latin calēre to be warm]


(ˈkæl ən tʃər, -ˌtʃʊər)

a violent fever with delirium, affecting persons in the tropics.
[1585–95; earlier calentura < Sp: fever]


a tropical f ever accompanied by delirium.
See also: Disease and Illness
References in classic literature ?
THE dairy was certainly worth looking at: it was a scene to sicken for with a sort of calenture in hot and dusty streets--such coolness, such purity, such fresh fragrance of new-pressed cheese, of firm butter, of wooden vessels perpetually bathed in pure water; such soft colouring of red earthenware and creamy surfaces, brown wood and polished tin, grey limestone and rich orange-red rust on the iron weights and hooks and hinges.
A mild fit of calenture seizes him, in which he deems that the ground so far below, is on a level with the tower, and would as lief walk off the tower into the air as not.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our principal trading being upon the coast, from latitude of 15 degrees north even to the line itself.