They looked increasingly to the seat of caliphal
authority in Istanbul.
authorities later executed al-Shalmaghani as a result of accusations of antinomianism.
The crisis this created led Ottoman thinkers to outline a new theory of the caliphate that broke with previous juristic models demanding caliphal
descent from the lineage of the Prophet, and instead created a kind of grand bargain between the Ottoman sultanate and an unseen hierarchy of leaders claimed by the mystics.
85) nurturant task oriented model in India and the prophetic Caliphal
model of leadership developed by Khadra (1990) in Arab countries.
The obsessive repetitions to blood are taken to morbid heights when Masrur the caliphal
executioner vows to drink Rafi's blood when he kills him.
Those who argue for a more assertive policy in Syria are right that, unless these problems are addressed, ISIS and other jihadi groups will continue to thrive even without the caliphal
After discussing one of the most significant of these writers, Muhammad Iqbal, and comparing his view of the Caliphate to Ibn Khaldun's, we will then return to the modern history of Caliphal
revivalism, in light of what we learn from Ibn Khaldun and Iqbal.
Originally, the Umayyads had created a caliphal
regime based in Damascus beginning in AD 661/Hijri 41.
This is followed by a chapter examining the Banu Salim region in the eighth to eleventh centuries, where Marisa Bueno Sanchez posits the existence of three distinct social structures which can be used to examine change in a complex and unstable frontier: the local, supra-local regions with ruling families, and areas subject to Caliphal