We focus here on the use of calmatives
for national security--biochemical agents that act on the central nervous system to incapacitate those exposed to them.
As well, "calmatives
" for crowd control--such as the opioid carfentanil--have been used by Russian special forces and have attracted the attention of the US military.
delivered as an aerosol render subjects unconscious by depressing neurological functions.
According to its energetics, valerian was considered by Disocorides to possess 'warming properties' and it was widely used by Eclectic physicians who commented that valerian was 'one of the best calmatives
for the collective condition termed nervousness' (Sarris 2010, Hechtman 2012).
developing pharmacological "calmatives
" that could incapacitate combatants.
Non-lethal weapons are defined as being "explicitly designed and primarily employed so as to incapacitate personnel or material, while minimizing fatalities, permanent injury to personnel, and undesired damage to property and the environment." (43) They span the entire spectrum of technology and include such things as firearms that inflict blunt trauma but are not intended to be fatal (by using rubber and plastic bullets), tear gas or other noxious vapors such as CS or CN, sticky and slippery foams, pepper spray, acoustic rays, projectile netting, chemical calmatives
, and directed energy heat ray systems.
These chemicals consist of RCAs, vomiting agents, psychochemicals, calmatives
, and malodorants.
According to Varro Tyler, Ph.D., in his book Herbs of Choice, agents used to treat anxiety or insomnia are referred to by numerous names, including "sleep aids, sedatives, hypnotics, soporifics, antianxiety agents, anxiolytics, calmatives
and minor tranquilizers." Herbs that fall into any of the above categories are often ambiguously called "nervines." The best-known and best-researched herbal sleep aid is valerian (Valeriana officinalis).
. A class of NL technology that has been banned by the Department of Defense is calmatives
And while the use of incapacitants in Russia might have been legal under international law because it was a police action, the Pentagon's development of what the military calls "nonlethal calmatives
" appears to violate chemical weapons treaties prohibiting the military use of such agents.
, a particular subset of chemical weapons, are psychotropic chemical compounds that affect, to varying degrees, the way the central nervous system works and consequently the way people think and behave.
(The Sunshine Project, an international organization exploring the dangers of new types of warfare stemming from advances in biotechnology, documents just a few of the potential biotech applications already being considered by First World militaries, including enhancing the abilities of soldiers to withstand sleep deprivation, thirst, hunger, and other forms of stress; using sophisticated neuro-pharmacology to develop "calmatives
" and "malodorants" for use in crowd control or to incapacitate enemy forces; and developing novel bioweapons.)