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loanwords and loan translations
English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
See loan translation.
tr.v. calqued, calque·ing, calques
To make a loan translation from (a word in another language).
[French, from calquer, to trace, copy, from Italian calcare, to press, from Latin calcāre, to tread on, from calx, heel.]
(Linguistics) another word for loan translation
vb, calques, calquing or calqued
(Art Terms) (tr) another word for calk3
[C20: from French: a tracing, from calquer, from Latin calcāre to tread]
n., v. calqued, cal•quing. n.
2. to form (a word or phrase) through the process of loan translation.
[1655–65; < French, n. derivative of calquer to copy, base on]
Past participle: calqued
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|Noun||1.||calque - an expression introduced into one language by translating it from another language; "`superman' is a calque for the German `Ubermensch'"|