Some terpenes, including alpha and beta pinene (present in highest concentrations on Polemonium foliosissimum calyces
); are toxic to certain insect pests (see Raffa, 1986, and Gregory et al., 1986, for examples).
The limitations imposed on their selection response are similar to what might have occurred in the present study had I attempted to simultaneously select for small male calyces
and large female calyces
from the second crop are much smaller and weaker in flavor than the first harvesting.
We did not assess the following factors that may affect access to the collecting system, stone manipulation and complication rate: vertebral column, pelvis and upper ureter anatomy, mobility of kidney, location of calyceal puncture, diameter of calyceal infundibulum, angle between calyces
, angle between calyx tract with pelvis and long axis of kidney or vertebra, inflammation around ureteropelvic junction or upper ureteral stone, adequate visibility during access (in severe bleeding or complete space-occupying stone and stone fragments migration into other calyces
have been used in folk medicines for many years and have been proven to lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension and type II diabetes.
A branched calculus measuring 3.6 x 3.2 x 3.0 cm filled the renal pelvis, lower pole and interpolar calyces
on the right and a branched calculus measuring 4.0 x 3.0 x 1.6 cm filled the renal pelvis, lower pole calyces
, interpolar calyces
and upper pole infundibulum on the left.
This study encompassed only those cases, which were operated by a single surgeon at our institute, in which total 281 patients were enrolled for this study, data was recorded for the name, gender, age, date of surgery, side of surgery, position for surgery, puncture attempts, needle used for puncture, number of air instillations, anatomy of calyces
(simple or complex), access (upper, lower or simultaneous upper and lower pole) and success or failure in localizing posterior calyx after instillation of the air (3-5cc in boluses.) Each patient in the study was operated under general anesthesia, in the lithotomy position.
The IPA of the lower calyces
was measured as the inner angle formed at the intersection of the ureteropelvic and central axes of the lower-pole infundibulum, as defined by Elbahnasy et al . The IL of the access calyx was measured as the distance between the distal point of the calyx and the pelvic-infundibular junction.
peruviana with yellow colored calyces
, a point at which the fruit presents a greater biomass.
The 11th rib tip, the 12th intercostal part, and the part between axillary line and linea scapularis were selected as the puncture site closest to the target renal calyces
. A standard channel was established through visual puncture-assisted balloon dilatation.
The fleshy calyces
of the plant are used in various countries in Africa and the Caribbean as food or food ingredient in jellies, syrups, beverages, puddings, cakes, and wines .
Residual stones location was mostly (>80%) the lower calyces
. This does not mean that this was their primary location, but mostly that residual stones were collected in lower calyces
after the procedure.