The low-spin carbenes
and carbynes detected in the IR-matrix spectra for the reactions of zirconium, iron, and ruthenium with fluoromethanes were rationalized by means of two sequential radical reactions [26-28].
(NHCs) are the imidazolebased carbene
groups which are isolated and crystallized by the deprotonation of imidazole salts .
Houk, "Distortion/interaction analysis of the reactivities and selectivities of halo- and methoxy-substituted carbenes
with alkenes," Arkivoc Archive for Organic Chemistry, vol.
: From Laboratory Curiosities to Efficient Synthetic Tools, 2nd Edition
The police recovered two rifle, six revolvers, 37 pistols, 11 guns, two carbenes
and rounds from them, he added.
In 2007, Gois and Jang groups reported, respectively, that the binuclear Rh(II) complex, V, containing N-Heterocyclic Carbenes
(NHC) as auxiliary ligands, can be a profitable tool in (i) the arylation of aldehydes and (ii) the allylic oxidation reaction [49, 50].
1-5% mole palladium species has commonly been used in homogenous system with palladium being generated by [Pd.sup.2+] salts with ligands such as [Cl.sup.-], P[Ph.sub.3], dba, N-heterocyclic carbenes
[5, 6], phosphorus and/or oxygen based ligands [1, 7], thiosemicarbazones , and bis(thio)urea ligands  in the presence of organic and/or inorganic bases for neutralization of the reaction.
Ghosh, N-Confused Porphyrins and Singlet Carbenes
: Is There a Connection?
"We weren't the first people who looked at heterocyclic carbenes
as ligands," he says, "but we and a number of other people started to look at them at a very fundamental level."
Voltaglue is developed using hydrogels consisting of carbon molecules called carbenes
grafted on to plastic molecules known as dendrimers.
Imidazole chemistry, because of its use in ionic liquids  and in V-heterocyclic carbenes
(NHCs) , opened a new dimension in the area of organometallics and ''Green Chemistry''.