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Vitamin K2 deficiency has emerged as an unrecognized contributor to degenerative diseases through carboxylation impairment, and reversal of occlusive changes is possible.
"The function of all forms of vitamin K is that they serve as a cofactor for the posttranslational carboxylation of certain protein-bound glutamate residues, which are converted into gamma-carboxy glutamate (Gla).
the O=C-O peak at 288.62 eV has indicated that the membrane surface has undergone a carboxylation reaction.
The minimum number of terms was one (such as "obesity"), and the maximum was 21 terms [KE 1,119: failure gamma glutamyl carboxylation glutamine residues clotting factors ii vii ix x under carboxylation clotting factors (gamma carboxy prothrombins)].
These data were used to quantify the instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEI) (A/E) [([micro]mol [m.sup.-2] [s.sup.-1]) [(mol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2] [s.sup.-1]).sup.-1]] and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (EICI) (A/Ci) [([micro]mol [m.sup.-2] [s.sup.-1]) [([micro]mol mol-1).sup.-1]] (Jaimez et al., 2005).
From these, it was possible to calculate the water use efficiency (WUE - mol C[O.sub.2] mol [H.sub.2][O.sup.-1]) obtained by the ratio between the amount of C[O.sub.2] fixed by photosynthesis and the amount of transpirated water, and the instantaneous efficiency of carboxylation by Rubisco (A/Ci) obtained by the relation between the amount of C[O.sub.2] fixed by photosynthesis and the intercellular C[O.sub.2] concentration.
Anionic surfactants are mostly derived from carboxylation, sulfation and condensation of fatty acids and phosphoric acid derivatives.
The water efficiency (A/E) [([micro]mol [m.sup.-2] [s.sup.-1]) (mmol [H.sub.2]O [m.sup.-2] [s.sup.-1]).sup.-1]] and the instantaneous efficiency of carboxylation (A/Ci) were quantified (Silva et al., 2014).
These proteins lose their procoagulant effect because carboxylation is required to bring about a calcium-dependent conformational change in the coagulation proteins.
Photosynthetic induction and its diffusional, carboxylation and electron transport processes as affected by CO2 partial pressure, temperature, air humidity and blue irradiance.
These factors are synthesised in the liver in precursor form and activated by carboxylation of specific glutamic residues, which require vitamin K in its reduced form as a cofactor 6,8,12,13.
The ACC is a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA substrate for the biosynthesis of fatty acids [39].