is seen in approximately 31%--49% of cases of type A IMH, while only in 18%-30% of cases of type A AAD (7, 8).
Blunt cardiac injury (BCI) encompasses different clinical circumstances, such as gradual myocardial injuries, great artery injuries, cardiac tamponade
, septum or wall ruptures, pump failure, conduction disturbances, and cardiac arrhythmias (1).
A specific problem addressed by our study is cardiogenic shock due to cardiac tamponade
. Pericardial tamponade is one of the most dreadful complication of cardiac surgery and invasive cardiology.
A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed the presence of moderate pericardial effusion (PE) more in the anterior aspect, extending to the apex with no signs of impending cardiac tamponade
[Figure 2 a and b], the biventricular ejection fraction was normal.
One study reported that patients are more likely to survive if they present with cardiac tamponade
.9 It is generally believed that up to a certain point, pericardial tamponade has a protective effect and prevents haemorrhage from the cardiac wound, possibly saving the patient's life.8 The majority of cases with penetrating cardiac injuries are managed mainly at public sector hospitals in the city 10 due to the high cost of treatment among other issues, limiting the volume of patients presenting with this injury at our center.
Exclusion criteria were: Patients having cardiac conditions which affect SV such as anemia, valvular heart disease, myocarditis, cardiac tamponade
, cardiac metabolic derangements, and endocrinal disorders such as thyroid dysfunction, arteriovenous fistula (shunt), and vitamin deficiency such as Vitamin [B.sub.1] deficiency and pericardial effusion.
was present on both reported cases of post traumatic and iatrogenic pericadiobiliary fistula.
Large pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade
, which can occur even before skin thickening and diagnosis of scleroderma.
Although there might be an asymptomatic period, if left untreated, the sharp nature of needles enables them to rapidly migrate through the tissues, leading to serious complications, including cardiac tamponade
, hemothorax and pneumothorax; thus, delayed diagnosis is associated with poor outcome (1).
Re-operations were also indicated if there were clinical signs of cardiac tamponade
such as tachycardia, increasing central venous pressures, or decreasing urine output, usually associated with a sudden reduction in chest tube drainage.
Tumor may stay hidden until the occurrence of complications, including pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade
, malignant arrhythmia, and distant metastasis.