[i] is a fully close central unrounded vowel, midway between cardinal vowels
1 [i] and 8 [u].
He says that the idea of the Cardinal Vowels
by Daniel Jones is based on the concept that the vowels are limited by vowel space.
For the sound stimuli, cardinal vowels
were taken from an Interactive CD containing a clickable cardinal vowel
chart created by the Department of Phonetics and Linguistics at University College London.
In contrast with the variability observed above, Ladefoged (1971) found the cineradiographic readings of tongue height positions in Ngwe front vowels /i, e, e, ae/ to coincide precisely with Jones's (1918) plotting of cardinal vowels
. As far as their respective back counterparts /a, [??], o, u/ are concerned, however, Ladefoged (1971: 68) found no such correlation and concluded that the notion of equidistant articulatory steps for such vowels was a relevant specification only in terms of their pharyngeal point of constriction, which moves away from the glottis in equidistant steps from /a/ to /u/ on a logarithmic scale.
He has identified nine vowels-five cardinal vowels
: /a, i, u e & o/ and four
Further, the tongue positions are described in relationship to the positions assumed in the cardinal vowels
allows the user to see how vowel sounds are produced by
When the subjects merely sang the five cardinal vowels
, each indicated no VPO at any pitch.
Catford (1988) argues that the idea of the cardinal vowels
by Daniel Jones banks on the notion that the vowels are limited by space.
Looking at the cardinal vowels
, we see the first and second formants focusing on the pitches indicated in Figure 4.
He views cardinal vowels
as `a standard reference system'.