These tests, also referred to as phospholipid antibody tests, use various techniques, such as flocculation tests or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), in order to detect antibodies that target reagin, which is a complex of cardiolipin
, lecithin, and cholesterol.
A full screen for hyperviscosity conditions including plasma homocysteine levels, anti-DNA antibodies, cardiolipin
antibodies, protein C and protein S, factor V Leiden and prothrombin 20210A was normal, as were the blood glucose level and a lipogram.
Diagnosis is based on thrombotic events and repeated positive tests for antiphospholipid antibodies, such as those against the phospholipid cardiolipin
or the plasma protein betaz-glycoprotein I, as well as the lupus anticoagulant.
Mitochondrial mass determination: The preferential binding of NAO to the cardiolipin
moiety in mitochondria was exploited to estimate mitochondrial mass (23,25).
The good news for researchers is that High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography separation and quantification of sphingomylin, PC, PI, PS, PG, PE, cardiolipin
, PA, lyso PC, PI, PS, PG and PE can be achieved.
Phosphatidic acid (PA) and Cardiolipin
(CAR) in the phospholipids fraction were not identified in the [sup.1]H-NMR spectrum, as head groups of these two phospholipids were not very different from the glycerol moiety.
Nontreponemal tests, such as the RPR test and venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test, detect antibodies to cardiolipin
and are not specific for treponemal infection.
(Anti-thrombin activity 85% (85-110), dilute Russell's viper venom test negative, PT 14, APTT 31, cardiolipin
IgG < 15 (0-15), IgM < 15 (0-15), Protein C 81% (75-150), Protein S 82% (68-150), PT mutation gene 20210A not present.) The following day the patient developed Type 2 respiratory failure (pH 7.32, PC[O.sub.2] 7.2 kPa, P[O.sub.2] 20.5 kPa, Fi[O.sub.2] 0.4) and required intubation of the trachea and ventilation of the lungs.
Several researchers have studied mitochondrial membrane lipids from many organisms, observing mainly phospholipids (cardiolipin
, phosphatidilethanolamine, phosphatidilserine) and cholesterol.
For patients suspected of having APS, antibodies to both cardiolipin
and (beta)-2-GPI are used to diagnose the condition.
NeoPharm uses a proprietary synthetic form of cardiolipin
. In its natural form, cardiolipin
occurs as a negatively charged lipid found in cardiac tissue.