From the historical summary page, users can also discover the meanings of "carucate
," "danegeld," "scutage," and "tallage," as well as visit the Tax History Project via the provided external link.
* carucage, levied on a unit of plough land called a carucate
There was a priest having half a carucate
of land in frank almoign.''
Apparently countering this lack of sophistication in the handling of sources is a wealth of technical vocabulary, much of it unexplained; the reader is left to struggle with words such as alambic, ard, astragalus, carucate
, glumes, seedlip, skep, scur, spiles, and vaccary, to mention only a few.
The Lordship of Golcar is recorded in the Domesday Book as including half a carucate
of taxable land and woodland pasture one league long and half a league wide.
The Doomesday Book of 1086, a land register rather than an apocalyptic text, said: "In Odersfelt, Godwin had six carucates
of land for geld where eight ploughs can be."
"It goes on to describe the Manor of Spec as consisting of two carucates
of land (estimated at between 120 and 200 acres) worth 64p."
Juries of shires, hundred, and village delivered verdicts on geld liability--an assessment in hides or carucates
to all the dues owed by free men--and arrears of Danegeld were collected.
(A sail from Estonia to the Porvoo archipelago takes 12 hours with a speed of four knots.) As early as in about 1250, Estonia had a population of 150 000 to 180 000 (as deduced from the registration of about 22 000 carucates
) (Indreko 1961 : 31) and we would, therefore, expect Estonians to have had some incentive to settle outside their country long before the less numerous Finns from Hame (or even from the Turku region) had felt any urge to clear land many days wanderings from their native region.
It says: "In Farnley Tyas, Godwine and Swein had 3 carucates
of land to the geld, and there could be 3 ploughs.
Not a great deal is known about Bradley historically; it is, however, mentioned in Domesday Book, which records; "In Bradeleia Godwin and Welfin held two carucates
of land to be taxed, and two ploughs might be used there.