Fruits as a single seed called a caryopsis
or rarely an achene or a berry.
Most of the anti-oxidative compounds in rice have been found in the 'bran' section, surface layers of the de- husked caryopsis
(pericarp, the aleurone and some sub- aleurone cells) plus the embryo, are removed by polishing in the milling process (Ichiyanagi et al.
It matures as a single seed called a caryopsis
(grain) or rarely an achene (a dry seed) or a berry.
Whole grains, by definition, consist of the intact, ground, cracked or flaked caryopsis
, whose principal anatomical components--endosperm, germ and bran--are present in the same relative proportions as they exist in the intact caryopsis
(DEVRIES & FAUBION, 1999).
Machado (1994) explains that the grain mass is a stable varietal character, that is not influenced by environment but by the skin size, which is determined two weeks prior to anthesis, and also by the caryopsis
development, which is related to carbohydrates translocation in the first seven days to fill the rice towards its length and for the successive seven days to improve plant width and thickness.
Adaptability and stability of white oat cultivars as to chemical composition of the caryopsis
Moreover, according to Amato and Elias (2005), the hydrothermal treatment allows the outer layers (which form the pericarp, tegument, the nucellus, and aleurone cells of the endosperm and part of the embryo, especially the scutellum) to be partially loosened and aggregated into the starchy endosperm of the caryopsis
, so that the embryo remains in place, not easily detached during hulling, causing the increment observed in this study.
parviglumis (Poaceae) caryopsis
development showing several processes conserved in maize.
And many researches also studied the expression level of Vp-1, which increased with the growth of caryopsis
and reached highest at 40 days after flowering (McKibbin et al.
Because practitioners in the sciences need precision when speaking or writing formally, the botanical term of choice for both true seeds as well as those carrying extra parts is disseminule, a catchall term that covers all variations of reproductive packages, botanically known by terms such as aril, achene, capsule, caryopsis
, nut, drupe, and true seed (Figure 4).
When barnyardgrass was mentioned, caryopsis
Regeneration of plants from rice caryopsis
derived callus culture of Nigerian local cv.