cotyledon and the nature of the first cataphyll
versus the eophyll to
These features are associated with almost constant features such as a single cataphyll
, coleoptile present or absent, entire eophyll, reduced axis, parallel or palmate venation, induplicate plication, epidermal cells rectangular or sometimes rhombohedral, major veins associated or not associated with ridges, phloem strands 1-3, and metaxylem vessels 1-2.
Generic diagnosis: Cataphyll
and leaf bases in alternating cycles.
features such as diameter, height, cataphyll
size, and shape can be
There are large, quadrate, rhombic leaf bases with an inverted omega arrangement of vascular bundles and smaller, narrowly, transversely, rhombic cataphyll
At this stage, a brown color was noticed on the first and second cataphylls
. The seedling presented a single lanceolate eophyll measuring 10.88-13.44 cm in length (Table 1) with parallel and longitudinal leaf veins (Figure 5E).
Except for Stangeria eriopus, the stem apices of all cycad species bear short, triangular, woody, often tomentose, modified leaves with a pointed free end, known as cataphylls
Bulb subglobose to ovoid, 25-35 x 20-35 mm, prolonged in a collar up to 10 cm, sheathing the underground stem; cataphylls
dark-brown, broadly ovate, apex truncate or acute.
The presence of two stem axes was also observed in Smilax polyantha, but the underground stem axis originated from axillary buds of the cataphylls
at the base of the aerial branching (Martins et al., 2011) and not from the cotyledonary bud as described in S.
The seedling of Calophyllum brasiliense presents the general morphological characters recorded for the family, as cryptocotyledonary germination, unilateral cotyledons and supracotyledonary cataphylls
. With reference to the seedlings morphology of Clusiaceae species, which have been already investigated, some differences considered relevant are recorded, as phanerocotylar seedling, epigeal and foliaceous cotyledons in Vismia guianensis (MOURAO; BELTRATI, 2001); undeveloped cotyledons in Garcinia parvifora (HZN, 1972); and cataphylls
in opposite arrangement in Calophyllum inophyllum (HZN, 1972), Rheedia edulis (Seem.) Triana and Planchon (AMO-RODRIGUES, 1979), Mammea odorata (VOGEL, 1980) and Platonia insignis (MOURAO; BELTRATI, 1995).
leyboldii was cryptocotylar and hypogeal, and the embryo had opposite cataphylls
. Germination time ranged from nine to 166 days.