Pathologic examination reveals characteristic rust-brown discoloration of the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticularis due to iron deposition and a reduction in the size of the caudate nuclei
, substantia nigra, and tegmentum as well as generalized atrophy of the brain.
She was diagnoed with multiple cerebral infarction including bilateral caudate nuclei
, bilateral frontotemporal lobes, and left parietal lobe after the operation (Figure 1a).
FLAIR-weighted cranial MRI showed bilateral hyperintensity in the globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate nuclei
. Diffusion-weighted images showed diffusion restriction in the bilateral caudate nuclei
, putamen, and cortex, which was suggestive of "cortical ribbon" (Figure 1).
Parkinsonism was studied using [sup.123]I-ioflupane SPECT (DaTSCAN), which revealed asymmetrical tracer uptake in the caudate nuclei
(decreased uptake in the left caudate nucleus) and a near-complete lack of activity in the putamina, particularly on the left side (Figure 1).
The basal ganglia, in particular the lentiform (putamen and globus pallidus) and caudate nuclei
, are the most frequently affected sites although more extensive intracerebral calcification affecting other brain parenchymal structures, as in this patient, may occur [12, 13].
The bilateral head of the caudate nuclei
(HCN), globus pallidus (GP), putamen (PUT), thalamus, substantia nigra (SN), and red nucleus (RN) in the WD groups were markedly deposited with paramagnetic mineralization and were significantly different compared to the normal controls, especially the bilateral PUT .
We studied the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and caudate nuclei
, as these structures have been shown to be affected by MD at the structural and/or functional level [15-18].
Release of dopamine evoked by electrical stimulation of the motor and visual areas of the cerebral cortex in both caudate nuclei
and in the substantia nigra in the cat.
Brain computed tomography (CT) showed symmetrical hypodensities in the caudate nuclei
and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an increased signal on T2-weighted/fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences in the same region, although extending to involve the anterior lentiform nuclei (Fig.
Differential expression of DSCR in human brain A quantitative analysis of global transcription of DSCR genes along the structures of the brain nuclei and the limbic lobe revealed that the highest values of z-score were registered in the area that includes the putamen for DSCR3, RCAN1 as well as in left and right caudate nuclei
for DSCR6, and the left and right globus pallidus for DSCR3, SH3GBR, DYRK1A, CLIC6 and PRMT2.