A beginning is that which does not itself follow anything by causal
necessity, but after which something naturally is or comes to be.
He is a beholder of ideas and an utterer of the necessary and causal
It is possible to understand that Napoleon had power and so events occurred; with some effort one may even conceive that Napoleon together with other influences was the cause of an event; but how a book, Le Contrat social, had the effect of making Frenchmen begin to drown one another cannot be understood without an explanation of the causal
nexus of this new force with the event.
Genius studies the causal
thought, and far back in the womb of things sees the rays parting from one orb, that diverge, ere they fall, by infinite diameters.
There are, it seems to me, prima facie different kinds of causal
laws, one belonging to physics and the other to psychology.
Yet when participants were involved in measure selection and viewed the balanced scorecard as a causal
chain, they exhibited no tendency to favor an initiative that they had selected (see Figure 4).
Causing Human Actions: New Perspectives on the Causal
Theory of Action.
graphs encode the specific mechanistic system that can be expressed as nonparametric structural equations that are at the core of the research question and present a graphical analog to epidemiologic concepts such as confounding, selection bias, and direct/indirect causal
But psychological scientist Marc Buehner of Cardiff University, UK wondered whether temporal binding might be rooted in a more general capacity to understand causal
The ability to identify causal
variants from the output of a whole genome or exome sequencing experiment remains a major bottleneck in making scientific discoveries and realizing the value of NGS sequencing.
Courts often held that patent infringement did not occur in the course of advertising so there was no causal
connection; and that an insurer has no duty to defend such lawsuits.
Brady and David Collier (2004), contains a broad spectrum of arguments in favor of distinct tools for generating causal
inference in small-N studies.