The conventional biochemical tests were: GS = Gram staining; OX = Oxidase; Mc = MacConkey medium; CI = Citrate; SIM = SIM medium; AR = Arabinose; CE = Cellobiose
; RA = Raffinose; XY = Xylose; VP = Voges-Proskauer; LAC = Lactose; OR = Ornithine; DU = Dulcitol.
Effect of cellobiose
, glucose, ethanol, and metal ions on the cellulase enzyme complex of Thermomonospora fusca.
Cellobiohydrolases hydrolyze cellulose by removing the cellobiose
units from the nonreducing end of cellulose, and [beta]-glucosidases, cleave glucose units from cellooligosaccharides (Siddiqui, Shemsi, Anwar, Rashid, & Rajoka, 1999).
The rainy season proved to be more active than the dry season, in which the quantity of C[O.sub.2] released, due to different substrates and activity with glucose, glutamine, cellobiose
and urea (N source), especially in the 4-5 year old rubber trees.
Chang et al., "Enhancing tungsten oxide/SBA-15 catalysts for hydrolysis of cellobiose
through doping ZrO2," Applied Catalysis A: General, vol.
Borgna, "Enhanced conversion of cellobiose
to sugar alcohols by controlled dispersion of ruthenium nanoparticles inside carbon nanotube channels," Catalysis Letters, vol.
Some of the cellulase inducers are cellulose, [beta]-glucan, xylan, lactose, cellobiose
, and sophorose, while glucose is the main repressor carbon source .
[beta]-D-glucosidase activity was chosen as a representative C-acquiring enzyme because this enzyme is involved in hydrolysis of cellobiose
, the main product in hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases , and it was measured with p-nitrophenyl-[beta]-D-glucopyranoside as the substrate in a modified universal buffer (MUB) (tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, 2.42 g; maleic acid, 2.32 g; citric acid, 2.8 g; boric acid, 1.26 g; and distilled water, 1 L) at pH 6.0 .
The selected LAB strains were assessed for the shape, cell wall composition (Gram staining), catalase production, carbohydrate, and sugar fermentation (amygdalin, arabinose, cellobiose
, esculin, fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, maltose, mannitol, raffinose, rhamnose, ribose, sorbitol, sucrose, and trehalose) as described in the Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology.
Samples of the liquid phase were used for analysis of glucose, galactose, cellobiose
, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and furfural by high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC).
The presence of readily metabolizable carbon sources like glucose, cellobiose
, xylobiose, or xylose represses the synthesis of xylanase enzymes for the utilization of certain carbon sources such as xylan or cellulose and the process is known as catabolite repression.