Alternatively, vaccines for autoimmune diseases need to be therapeutic and focused on cellular immunity
, not antibodies.
ADA enzyme levels are high in many diseases where cellular immunity
In children with associated down syndrome, preoperative cardio-respiratory compromise, intellectual disability and compromised cellular immunity
further complicate the scenario.
Studies show that in Alopecia areata, failure of this immune privilege results in type 1 cellular immunity
mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes which attack hair follicles and prevent them from entering the growing phase of the hair cycle.3 These cytotoxic T lymphocytes depend on the Interleukin-15 pathway which utilizes Janus Kinase (JAK) proteins for downstream signaling.
Studies on animal models emphasized the role of cellular immunity
in controlling leishmaniasis (6).
Two types of leprosy reaction are type 1, known as reversal reaction (RR), caused by acute changes in cellular immunity
, and type 2 reaction known as erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), caused by humoral immunity process.3 Reversal reaction is associated with cell-mediated immunity (CMI) activities, consists of T helper cell-1 (Th1) and 2 (Th2).
Th1 cells are primarily produced by interferon-[gamma] (IFN-[gamma]), which acts as the most potent macrophage activator in cellular immunity
. The hypothesis that Th1 cells play a major role in MS pathogenesis was prevalent at first, but it was questioned with the discovery of T regulatory cells (the function of which is maintaining homeostasis in the immune system), and in particular Th17 cells as a completely recently found subpopulation of CD4+ T discovered about ten years ago (5,6) (Fig.
Conversely, after delivery, restoration of cellular immunity
is commonly observed (11) and may have contributed to efficient clearance of the virus by hepatic cytolysis along with the reduced immunosuppression resulting from infliximab discontinuation.
The therapeutic use of 12D7 offers the potential to target advanced tumors by activating cellular immunity
or antibody directed immune responses against tumors.
These cells are nonspecific components of cellular immunity
. Their effect is not tumor-specific and the major histocompatibility antigen system (MHC) restriction plays an important role in early antitumor immunity.
"One thing we've learned is that cellular immunity
is going to be a lot more important than we thought it was," he said.