By definition, petrous apex cephalocele
is the cystic expansion and herniation of the posterolateral portion of Meckel's cave into the superomedial portion of petrous apex.
Castilla EE and Rittler  in 2001 in their study observed a significant association with parental consanguinity for three congenital anomaly types: hydrocephalus, postaxial hand polydactyly and bilateral cleft lip +/- cleft palate, while three additional anomalies namely cephalocele
, microcephaly and hand + foot postaxial polydactyly showed a positive association.
Additional congenital malformation and syndromes (i.e., chromosomal anomalies, Dandy-Walker malformation, heterotopies, midline defects, and microcephaly) are also associated with cephaloceles
. Several clinical manifestations, including meningitis caused by CSF rhinorrhea, cranial midline defects (i.e., cleft lip or cleft palate), and endocrine abnormalities, can also occur, depending on the size and location of the cephalocele
Caption: Figure 2: Orbital CT scans ((a) sagittal scan, (b) coronal scan) revealed an area of bone discontinuity in the right orbital roof with adjacent cephalocele
The differential diagnosis of nonprogressive swelling can be congenital anomalies like cephalocele
, dermoid, and epidermoid cyst.
is a protrusion of intracranial contents through a defect in the calvarium or skull base; the defect may be congenital, acquired (including postoperative or post-traumatic) or spontaneous.
Recurrent meningitis associated with a petrous apex cephalocele
. J Child Neurol 2005; 20: 168-70.
The first abortion was four months from pregnancy resulting in a fetus with anencephaly, kyphosis and cephalocele
and the second was a blighted ovum at 3rd month of pregnancy.