Following the definitions of Martin & Saler (1959) morphometric variables were measured by classical anthropometric instruments: anthropometer, cephalometer
, metric tape, as well as with sliding compass, with accuracy of 1 mm.
When Broadbent introduced his cephalometer
in 1931, a new period began in orthodontics.
Ever since the advent of the Bolton cephalometer
in 1931 (1), orthodontists have routinely used lateral cephalograms to aid in diagnosis and treatment planning, as well as evaluation of treatment.
The skull was mounted by its external auditory meati in the cephalostat of a Cranex 3 cephalometer
(Soredex Orion Corporation, Helsinki, Finland) and adjusted to lie in the Frankfurt horizontal plane.