Before marking the anatomical points, a ruler on the cephalostat
was calibrated in the program, and thus standardization was provided in all cephalometric radiographs.
Each participant was positioned in the cephalostat
with the sagittal plane at a right angle to the path of the X-rays with the Frankfort plane parallel to the floor and teeth in centric occlusion and the lips gently sealed.
A total of 66 cephalometric films were digitally traced and analyzed immediately before and after placement of the appliances (T1, T2) were obtained using the same cephalostat
with the same instrument (Kodak Cephalostat
, Rochester N Y, USA) by a single observer (E.G.) in a digital cephalometric software program.
All radiographs were exposed from the same cephalostat
with standard film to tube distance and patient to source distance was standardized to 5 feet.
The horizontal head position was maintained by the cephalostat
itself and the teeth were in centric occlusion.
True anatomical porion is difficult to locate either due to superimposition of anatomical structures or because of Ear rod of cephalostat
superimposing the anatomical porion.25 A study conducated by Adenwalla24 reported that there is poor correlation between anatomic and cephalometric porion.
The dorsal region of the skull was shaved and the head of the rat was positioned in a cephalostat
during the operative procedure and aseptically prepared for surgery.
The radiographs should have been taken within the same standards--with patients positioned in the cephalostat
, the midsagittal plane perpendicular to the ground, the Frankfurt horizontal plane parallel to the ground, the film perpendicular to the ground, 1.52 m focus-film distance, and the central X-ray beam aligned to the center of the loaded cassette.
The mandibles were immersed in a Styrofoam box filled with water and positioned in the cephalostat
of the i-CAT[R] CBCT scanner (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, USA) simulating an in vivo position (i.e., slightly angled on a horizontal plane), using the following acquisition protocol: 120 kV, 36.12 mAs, field of view of 6 cm, 512 x 512 matrix, voxel size of 0.25 mm and acquisition time of 40 s.
All radiographs were taken on the same cephalostat
with the patient in a standing position, with the Frankfurt plane parallel to the horizontal, the teeth in centric occlusion and lips relaxed.