cephalothin


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cephalothin

(ˈsɛfələˌθɪn)
n
a cephalosporin antibiotic often used in the treatment of bacterial infections
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014
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Noun1.cephalothin - a semisynthetic analogue of cephalosporin
cephalosporin, Mefoxin - one of several broad spectrum antibiotic substances obtained from fungi and related to penicillin (trade names Mefoxin); addition of side chains has produced semisynthetic antibiotics with greater antibacterial activity
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References in periodicals archive ?
Antibiotic susceptibility testing of isolates showed high resistance rate to Cephalothin (85.7%).
A strain belonging to Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes (now newly named as Klebsiella aerogeties) or Citrobacter freundii group will virtually always present full resistance to ampicillin, cephalothin, and cefoxitin due to low level of chromosomal AmpC enzyme expression.
In addition, the side chain of older cephalosporin members (e.g., cephalothin, cephaloridine, and cefamandole) is similar to that of penicillin (5) thus increasing the risk of cross-reactivity and type IV allergic reaction with penicillin and its derivatives.
Usage of ampicillin, cephalothin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol have been shown to suppress alpha haemolytic streptococci and promote the emergence of gram-negative enteric organisms.
Results of previous aerobic bacterial culture and sensitivity results showed a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with sensitivity to chloramphenicol, doxycycline, gentamicin, and trimethoprim/sulfa and resistance to amikacin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin, penicillin, and piperacillin.
Of the 51 strains examined, 46 (90.19%) were sensitive to Amoxycillin/ Clavulonic acid, 40 (78.43%) to Gentamicin, 39 (76.47%) to Ampicillin/ Sulbactam, 31 (60.78%) to Enrofloxacin, 30 (58.82%) to Nitrofurantoin, 29 (56.86%) to Kanamycin, 28 (54.90%) to Oxytetracycline, 26 (50.98%) to Cephalothin and Danofloxacin and 23 (45.09%) to Sulphamethoxazole/Trimethoprim.
The following drugs and concentrations were used to determine the antibiogram of the strains: penicillin (10 U), augmentin (30 [micro]g), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75 [micro]g), clindamycin (30 [micro]g), gentamicin (30 [micro]g), ciprofloxacin (5 [micro]g), erythromycin (15 [micro]g), chloramphenicol (30 [micro]g), cefuroxime (30 [micro]g), cephalothin (10 [micro]g), ceftazidime (30 [micro]g), cefotaxim (30 [micro]g), ceftriaxone (10 [micro]g), oxacillin (1 [micro]g), nitrofurantoin (30 [micro]g), nalidixic acid (30 [micro]g), and norfloxacin (30 [micro]g).
coli isolates' resistance to ampicillin and cephalothin (84.6%), chloramphenicol (83.3%), tetracycline (88.9%), and gentamicin (65.9%) reported by [30] in Tigray, Ethiopia.
Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) agar, Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth, Skirrow's supplement (SR69) Oxoid England, glycerol, cephalothin (30 [micro]g), and nalidixic acid (30 [micro]g) antibiotic disc were obtained from Mast Group Ltd., Merseyside, UK.
The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by using Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion technique on Mueller-Hinton agar according to the CLSI guidelines 2014 [15] for the following antimicrobial discs: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (20/10 [micro]g), cefotaxime (30 [micro]g), ceftriaxone (30 [micro]g), ceftazidime (30 [micro]g), ampicillin (10 [micro]g), cephalothin (30 [micro]g), ciprofloxacin (5 [micro]g), nalidixic acid (30 [micro]g), norfloxacin (10 [micro]g), gentamycin (10 [micro]g), amikacin (30 [micro]g), tetracycline (30 [micro]g), trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75 [micro]g), imipenem (30 [micro]g), and chloramphenicol (30 [micro]g) (Oxoid; UK).
Susceptibility (MIC, Reference Antibiotic [micro]g/mL) * number Aminobenzyl-penicillin Amoxicillin R (>16) [12] Ampicillin R (>16) [11], current case [beta]-Lactam/ [beta]-lactamase inhibitors Amoxicillin-clavulanate R (8/4) [12] Ampicillin-sulbactam R (>16/8) Current case Cephalosporins (1st generation) Cefazolin R (>16) Current case Cephalothin R ([paragraph]) [11] Cephalosporins (2nd generation) Cefoxitin R (>16) Current case Cefuroxime I (16) Current case Polymyxins Colistin R ([paragraph]) [11] Resistance mechanism encoded in C.