They also characterized the tooth-bearing premaxillaries, dentaries and branchial toothplates, as well as the gill rakers on the epibranchials, ceratobranchials, hypobranchials and pharyngobranchials.
Sakamoto (1984) utilized data on the branchial apparatus in his phylogenetic studies of Pleuronectidae, exploiting seven characters: 5th ceratobranchials, the shape of the 1st epibranchial, teeth on the 3rd epibranchial, gill rakers on the upper limb of the branchial arch, spines on gill rakers, shape of gill rakers and bony plates on the branchial arches.
brasiliensis exhibited fenestrae only in the first three ceratobranchials (Carvalho 1999a).
Meanwhile, the ceratobranchial elements (CB 1-5) are rod-like in shape (Figure 4).
9); ventral hypohyals, dorsal hypohyals and urohyal ossified; urohyal extremely thin; basibranchials 2, 3 ossified; basibranchial 4 either absent, unstained or too small to discern; hyobranchials 1, 2, and 3 cartilaginous; ceratobranchials
1, 2, 3, 4 cartilaginous at tips; ceratobranchial
5 completely cartilaginous and fused with lower pharyngeal plate; lower pharyngeal plate ossified, possessing large conical teeth with slightly recurved tips.
Viewed simultaneously through the endoscope, the distance between the ceratobranchials
and the oropharyngeal roof increased, signifying abduction of the branchial arches.
The branchial arches are dorso-ventrally originated by faringobranchials 1-4, epibranchials 1-5 and ceratobranchials
Hyobranchial apparatus: Comprising median unpaired glossohyal, basihyal, three basibranchials and urohyal; and bilaterally paired dorsal and ventral hypohyals, anterior and posterior ceratohyals, interhyal, six branchiostegal rays, three hypobranchials, five ceratobranchials
, four epibranchials and three pharyngobranchials (Fig.
Tongue unpigmented; copula, basibranchials and ceratobranchials
Hyoid and gill arches not distinct from other Atherinidae; fifth ceratobranchials
fused, characteristic of new genus in combination with other attributes (Fig.
Within the branchial arches, five pairs of ceratobranchials
(cb) lie ventrally to four paired epibranchials and the pharyngobranchials (not shown).
Cartilaginous basibranchial and ceratobranchials
1 and 2 are present at 5 DPH, but do not begin ossifying until approximately 17 DPH.