They also characterized the tooth-bearing premaxillaries, dentaries and branchial toothplates, as well as the gill rakers on the epibranchials, ceratobranchials
, hypobranchials and pharyngobranchials.
sceleratus gills were characterized by a somewhat clear angle of curvature at the union of short epibranchials and long ceratobranchials
as reported in many literatures (Eiras-Stofella & Charvet-- Almeida, 1998, 2000; Kumari et al., 2005; Alsafy), in contrast, there are some species that were characterized by the absence of this angle as noted by (Hossler et al., 1979; Eiras-Stofella et al.).
9); ventral hypohyals, dorsal hypohyals and urohyal ossified; urohyal extremely thin; basibranchials 2, 3 ossified; basibranchial 4 either absent, unstained or too small to discern; hyobranchials 1, 2, and 3 cartilaginous; ceratobranchials
1, 2, 3, 4 cartilaginous at tips; ceratobranchial
5 completely cartilaginous and fused with lower pharyngeal plate; lower pharyngeal plate ossified, possessing large conical teeth with slightly recurved tips.
The left ventral sections (ceratobranchials
) of arches II-IV could be seen most frequently through the endoscope (Fig.
5C), and slender on first arch; longest raker in joint between epi- and ceratobranchials
; length of preceding rakers on upper arch and succeeding rakers on lower arch progressively shorter; rudiments absent.
Hyobranchial apparatus: Comprising median unpaired glossohyal, basihyal, three basibranchials and urohyal; and bilaterally paired dorsal and ventral hypohyals, anterior and posterior ceratohyals, interhyal, six branchiostegal rays, three hypobranchials, five ceratobranchials
, four epibranchials and three pharyngobranchials (Fig.10).
Tongue unpigmented; copula, basibranchials and ceratobranchials
Hyoid and gill arches not distinct from other Atherinidae; fifth ceratobranchials
fused, characteristic of new genus in combination with other attributes (Fig.
The branchial arches are dorso-ventrally originated by faringobranchials 1-4, epibranchials 1-5 and ceratobranchials
Within the branchial arches, five pairs of ceratobranchials
(cb) lie ventrally to four paired epibranchials and the pharyngobranchials (not shown).
Cartilaginous basibranchial and ceratobranchials
1 and 2 are present at 5 DPH, but do not begin ossifying until approximately 17 DPH.