In particular, chemokines MIG and MIP1 act as chemoattractants
toward monocytes, lymphocytes, and natural killer cells, which are important in establishing innate immunity in human pregnancy (18).
(1) A number of products elaborated by RA SF, including IL-8, IL-16, MCP-1, MIP-1a, and RANK ligand serve as potent chemoattractants
, drawing various inflammatory cells from the bloodstream into the joint.
Although IL-1[beta] is implicated in the induction of inflammation and cell recruitment, the up-regulation of IL-1[beta] was relatively weak compared with that of MCP-1 and MIP-2, both of which are potent chemoattractants
Bozza et al., "Human eosinophils elaborate the lymphocyte chemoattractants
. IL-16 (lymphocyte chemoattractant
factor) and RANTES," Journal of Immunology, vol.
Once arrived to the site of infection, PMN encounter an inflammatory environment enriched in host-derived cytokines and pathogen-derived chemoattractants
that can modulate their responsiveness to subsequent pathogen stimuli.
In this prospective review, we highlight these selective forces, but also emphasize the role that sexual selection, manifested through sperm competition, cryptic female choice, and evolutionary conflicts of interest between the sexes (sexual conflict), can also play in mediating the action of egg chemoattractants
and GRPs, and thus individual reproductive fitness.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are chemoattractants
for monocytes and therefore are involved in physiologic and pathologic tissue growth and vascular remodeling as well as inflammation (10-13).
b-LPS mediates the upregulation of chemoattractants
and inflammatory cytokines, including MIP-2, MCP-1, TNF-[alpha], and IL-6, at the mRNA level in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
This multi-factorial approach to sperm-egg-jelly communication is also seen in sea urchin eggs where the egg jelly supplies not only peptides such as speract and resact that act as chemoattractants
and motility-stimulating factors, but also fucose sulfate moieties that trigger the acrosome reaction (SeGall and Lennarz, 1979; Alves et al., 1997; Vacquier and Moy, 1997).
Purification and amino acid analysis of two human glioma-derived monocyte chemoattractants
. J Exp Med 1989;169:1449-59.
Since MIP-2 and MIP-1[alpha] are chemoattractants
for neutrophils, decreased production of IL-6 can decrease neutrophil infiltration .
Candidate cytokines would include TNF-[alpha] and TGF-[beta]1, both potent neutrophil chemoattractants
. One hypothesis that could reconcile our observations with those of Das and Harris and their colleagues [46, 47] would involve the amplification of the role of eosinophils through interactions with resident peritoneal mast cells, since mast cells are an important source of neutrophil chemoattractants
, including TNF-[alpha] .