Marina are obliged chemoautotrophic
, important in marine habitats, and generally found in fresh and/or salt water.
Living benthic microbial communities (BMCs) include complex ecological clusters of photo synthetic prokaryotes, eukaryotic microalgae, and chemoautotrophic
and chemoheterotrophic microbes (Burne & Moore, 1987).
Finally, unlike other teredinid species, which harbor cellulolytic endosymbionts (Waterbury et al., 1983; Distel et al., 1991, 2017), the symbiont community of K polythalamius is composed of sulphur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic
bacteria, implying that reduced sulphur compounds, rather than wood, provide the major source of nutritional energy for large sediment-dwelling individuals of this species (Distel et al., 2017).
In plants, algae, cyanobacteria and phototrophic proteobacteria and chemoautotrophic
organisms this enzyme normally consists of eight repetitions of two types of protein subunits, called large subunit (L, about 55 kDa) and small subunit (S, about 13 kDa) (Dhingra et al., 2004; Portis Junior and Parry, 2007).
On the opposite case, underground air of some hypogene caves may contain unusually high levels of methane (up to 3%, e.g., Movile Cave) related to the action of chemoautotrophic
bacteria , and others have moderate C[H.sub.4] concentrations, just above the atmospheric background, related to C[H.sub.4] outgassing from spring water in sulphuric acid hypogenic caves (e.g., <4 ppm C[H.sub.4] at Cueva Villa Luz ).
The expansion of gene families related to immune recognition, endocytosis and caspase-mediated apoptosis indicates the mussel's adaptation to the presence of chemoautotrophic
endosymbionts in its gills.
Water samples were diluted until [10.sup.-4] following which 1 mL of the last three dilutions were transferred to Petri plates containing culture media for heterotrophic bacteria (Plate Count Agar; PCA), chemoautotrophic
bacteria (specific culture media), and Vibrio (Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose; TCBS).
Some other source of carbon is possible, such as carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic
bacteria or Archaea, such as nitrifiers, but the amounts are also likely to be small (Miltner et al.
Thus, the growth of strain KOR-1 is common among members of the genus Methanobacterium, considering the strain as chemoautotrophic
From volcanic origins of chemoautotrophic
life to Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya.
Metagenomic studies have revealed that Archaea are widely distributed and likely play an important role in a variety of environmental processes, such as chemoautotrophic
nitrification , carbon metabolism , and amino acid uptake [3, 4].