A statement was supported, when the

chi-square value was found greater than the table value of 3.

During the bivariable analysis, qualitative variables were tested for significance using

chi-square test and quantitative variables using t-test.

Responses based on the characteristics of the students, and the schools from which they came, were examined for differences using

chi-square tests.

The degree of association of a form with a class is assessed by applying the

chi-square formula on the observed data.

Andersen (1973) showed that -2 times logarithm of the difference between the maximum likelihood (ML) of the whole sample and sum of likelihoods of the subsamples is asymptotically

chi-square distributed with (g-1) (k-1) degrees of freedom, where g and k are the number of score groups and the number of items, respectively.

Chi-square test (x2) was used to analyze differences in allelic frequencies and to verify Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

Differences in baseline characteristics of participants as a function of gender were also assessed through

Chi-square test, and independent sample t-test or Mann-Whitney test if parametric assumptions were not met.

Chi-square tests (Preacher, 2001) were utilized for testing for pairwise differences of the medians of the different developmental stages in the four different oxygen levels on a specific day.

In Table 4, the

chi-square tests for GHP (

Chi-square=20.

The first part indicates it is a

chi-square test, and the number in parentheses represents the degrees of freedom.

Therefore,

chi-square tests of independence were performed between each of the 7 professional characteristics and the 18 CPE needs.

We compared the groups on demographic characteristics using t tests for continuous variables and

chi-square tests for categorical variables (Hays, 1994).