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Water clear cells, a variant of chief cell with vacuolated cytoplasm were occasionally seen (less than 1%).
The two most common types of parathyroid hyperplasia are chief cell hyperplasia and water-clear cell hyperplasia.
(5) The adult parathyroid is composed predominantly of chief cells, as well as oxyphilic cells, which are mitochondria rich, and transitional oxyphilic cells, which appear to represent an intermediate phase from chief cell to oxyphilic cell.
Chief cell neoplasms are more common than oncocytic neoplasms.
Despite its name, the WCCs are seldom entirely "clear" but are often variably vacuolated, foamy, and granular.[1] By electron microscopy, the vacuoles are of uncertain origin but are possibly derived from the Golgi apparatus.[23] Secretory and prosecretory granules are sparsely present; however, the concentration of parathyroid hormone, per milligram of fresh tissue, is approximately 1000 times lower than in normal parathyroid glands or chief cell adenomas.
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines PGL as "a unique neuroendocrine neoplasm, usually encapsulated and benign, arising in specialized neural crest cells associated with segmental or collateral autonomic ganglia; consisting of uniform chief cells exhibiting neuronal differentiation forming compact nests (Zellballen) surrounded by sustentactular cells and a delicate capillary network." (18) They are classified by the site of origin, such as central nervous system PGL, head and neck PGL, (urinary) bladder PGL, mediastinal PGL, organ of Zuckerkandl PGL, extra-adrenal abdominal PGL, pelvic PGL, and pheochromocytoma (PGL of adrenal medulla).
The gastric glands are composed of five cell types, including the chief cells, parietal cells, mucous neck cells, enteroendocrine cells, and undifferentiated adult stem cells.
(7) On microscopic examination, parathyroid adenomas are predominantly composed of chief cells, which may be scattered diffusely or in a nodular configuration.
The subjects not exposed to aspirin had an intact muscularis externa, submucosa, and gastric mucosa with an abundance of chief cells found just above the submucosa occupying one-fourth of the entire gastric mucosa (Figure 1a).
These include chief cells, which produce a key digestive enzyme called pepsin, and parietal cells.
The adenoma was composed mainly of chief cells and oxyphil cells, covered with a fibrous capsule (Figure 2(a)).
Microscopically, the adenoma can be composed of chief cells, oxyphilic cells, or clear cells.