The proverbs and idiomatic expressions are imbedded, not in "typographic, chirographic
, literate and/or written mediums" (Ong 36-45), but rather in and through oral, verbalized, spoken forms of expression.
He identifies four major environments synthesized from other works: the oral (the environment consistent among all human beings, the chirographic
(writing, or an extension of the oral culture), the typo graphic, and the technological.
Stratford duly distinguishes chirographic
analysis (the attribution of documents to individual scribes) from palaeographic analysis (temporal and geographical evolution of signs).
The former is in the domain of literature and its material is chirographic
: a text, words on a page.
Situated between orality and literacy, the chirographic
manuscript betrays residual orality by allowing for some degree of audience interaction and narrative incompleteness--as we find in Frankenstein.
people in chirographic
or typographic society see words as
Among their topics are Balinese practices of script and Western paradigms of text: an anthropological approach to a philological topic; the body of letters: Balinese aksara as an intersection between script, power, and knowledge; the medium is the message: chirographic
figures in two traditions; the imposition of the syllabary (svaravyanjana-nyasa) in the Old Javano-Balinese tradition in light of South Asian Tantric sources; and visible and invisible script used at consecrations of buildings in Bali.
Though their layouts vary according to the chirographic
and morphological conventions of the times in which they were made, manuscripts often contain violations or manipulations of the space of the page that, for students accustomed to printed text (and digital texts that use print conventions), can challenge interpretive norms.
Similarly, Cronin (2003, 2013) and Pym (1998, 2011, 2014) have addressed translation in a broader media-historical context: the former examining the various chirographic
, print, and electronic tools at the translator's disposal throughout the history of writing (2003) and the latter fleshing out the correlation between contemporary and historical practices of translation, such as that between website localization and medieval translation practices (2014).
(10) Over the seventeenth century, the modern meaning of 'character' as a person's identity emerged out of this earlier etymology: when the chirographic
style of handwriting can be associated with one individual, that writing can then stand for that individual.
In this "film script" of modern warfare--even when "screened" in the medium of chirographic
culture--we suddenly see writ large the communicative bias of the cinematic image--its immediacy, its presentism, its total immersion in the moment, all of which Owen equates with "truth"
The second shift follows how handwritten (chirographic
) texts are transformed into widely disseminated, mechanically produced printed books.