51,52) TCDD also has other, Nrf2-independent toxic effects, but these acne-like changes in skin properties are clearly caused by excessive, long-term levels of Nrf2, such that chloracne
may serve as a marker for excessive Nrf2 stimulation.
The hallmark of TCDD toxicity in humans is chloracne
(Panteleyev and Bickers 2006), characterized by epidermal acanthosis and hyperkeratosis, and hyperkeratinization and metaplasia of the sebaceous glands, with comedone formation.
About how the government long denied that exposure to Agent Orange could contribute to any ill-health except a case of chloracne
, a disfiguring skin condition.
Exposure to high levels causes the severe skin condition chloracne
Short-term exposure of humans to high levels of dioxins may result in skin lesions, such as chloracne
and patchy darkening of the skin, and altered liver function.
Dioxin is highly toxic to animals and has been proven to cause chloracne
, a serious skin disorder in humans.
Category of Evidence Presumption Examples Sufficient evidence of an B-cell leukemia association Chloracne
Limited/suggestive evidence of Prostate cancer an association Diabetes Inadequate/insufficient evidence 1994 assessment for type II to determine whether an diabetes, moved to limited/ association exists suggestive in 2000.
Between June 1, 1966 and June 30, 2011 the applicant must have been diagnosed for one of the following prescribed medical conditions: CLC, soft tissue sarcoma, Hodgkin's disease, chloracne
, respiratory or prostate cancer, myeloma, transient peripheral neuropathy, porphyria cutanea tarda, type 2 diabetes or spinal bifida.
Additionally, exposure to PCDDs and PCDFs has been linked to myeloid leukemia, chloracne
, hemorrhaging, and carcinogenic effects, as well as promoting increased risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases (Bertazzi et al.
The panel's review also turned up substantial evidence of a link between herbicide exposure and chloracne
, an acne-like skin disorder, as well as porphyria cutanea tarda, a liver disorder that causes skin blistering.
None of the factors examined, including age, smoking status, body mass index or change in body mass index, initial measured concentration, or chloracne
diagnosis, was consistently associated with the estimated elimination rates in this population.
The only human illness so far proved to occur from dioxin exposure is chloracne
, an acne-like skin disorder and short-term reversible nerve dysfunction.