chloramphenicol


Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

chlo·ram·phen·i·col

 (klôr′ăm-fĕn′ĭ-kôl′, -kŏl′, -kōl′)
n.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic, C11H12Cl2N2O5, derived from the soil bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae or produced synthetically.

chloramphenicol

(ˌklɔːræmˈfɛnɪˌkɒl)
n
(Pharmacology) a broad-spectrum antibiotic used esp in treating typhoid fever and rickettsial infections: obtained from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae or synthesized. Formula: C11H12N2O5Cl2
[C20: from chloro- + am(ido)- + phe(no)- + ni(tro)- + (gly)col]

chlo•ram•phen•i•col

(ˌklɔr æmˈfɛn ɪˌkɔl, -ˌkɒl, ˌkloʊr-)

n.
an antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces venezuelae or synthesized, used chiefly for treating rickettsial infections.
[1945–50; chlor- + am(ido)- + phe(n)- + ni(tro)- + (gly)col]
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.chloramphenicol - an oral antibiotic (trade name Chloromycetin) used to treat serious infections (especially typhoid fever)
antibiotic, antibiotic drug - a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that can kill microorganisms and cure bacterial infections; "when antibiotics were first discovered they were called wonder drugs"
Translations
Chloramphenicol

chlor·am·phen·i·col

n. cloranfenicol, cloromicetina, antibiótico esp. efectivo en el tratamiento de la fiebre tifoidea.

chloramphenicol

n cloranfenicol m
References in periodicals archive ?
Currently, there is increased use of chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin[R]), oxytetracycline and neomycin in studies.
Antibiotic discs tested in the study were nalidixic acid (30mcg), tetracycline (30mcg), co-trimoxazole (25mcg), ciprofloxacin (5mcg), chloramphenicol (30mcg), ampicillin (10mcg), gentamicin (10mcg), nitrofurantoin (300mcg), imipenem (10mcg), meropenem (10mcg), cefotaxime (30mcg) and piperacillintazobactum (100/10mcg) and the values obtained were interpreted as being resistant, intermediate and sensitive according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.
Our results show that xylose increases the antibiotic activity of tetracycline and chloramphenicol against efflux-dependent resistant A.
The tested antimicrobial drugs were ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, ceftriaxone and cefixime.
[4] The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, especially the multidrug resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co trimoxazole, has further complicated the treatment and management of enteric fever.
For the purpose of their study, the researchers infected mice with a cocktail containing both - Staphylococci bacteria resistant to the antibiotic chloramphenicol and non-resistant Streptococci.
MRSA was found to be highly susceptible to vancomycin 149 (100%), linezolid 144 (96.7%), minocycline 143 (96.3%) and showed moderate susceptibility to rifampicin 111 (74.7%), fusidic acid 99 (66.7%) and chloramphenicol 93 (62.6%).
For isolation of yeast and fungi, the otitic exudate was inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) with Chloramphenicol slants, incubated at 25[degrees]C and examined every 4-6 days.
According to drug sensitivity patterns, vancomycin was found sensitive in 100%, linezolid 98.9%, mupirocin 96.8%, rifampicin 95.7%, chloramphenicol 94.7%, clindamycin 86.2%, amikacin 84%, moxifloxacin 83%, fusidic acid 79.8%, gentamicin 76.6%, oxacillin 69.1%, ciprofloxacin 68.1%, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 62.8%, erythromycin 60.6% and trimethoprim- sulphamethaxazole 57.4% of cases.
Given the importance of Thymus species as useful antibacterial remedies, the aim of the present study was to examine the chemical composition and antibacterial effect of the essential oil of Thymus glabrescens (thyme), as well as the association between it and chloramphenicol. The antibacterial activities of geraniol and thymol, the main active principles of thyme oil, in combination with chloramphenicol were also determined.
The sensitivit y of drugs like amoxicillin chloramphenicol and co-trimaxazole were 2.8% 12.3% and 22.6% respectively.
(10,11) An open label, randomised controlled trial found that, compared to immediate antibiotic treatment, delayed prescribing of chloramphenicol provided a similar severity and duration (mean 3.3 days versus 3.9 days) of symptoms and reduced the likelihood of re-attendance to the practitioner.