In plants without GUN1, gene expression changed, as did RNA editing in chloroplasts
. (RNA editing is a modification of the RNA that changes the identity of nucleotides so that the information in the mature RNA differs from that defined in the genome, altering the instructions for making proteins.) Some areas of RNA had more editing and other locations had less editing, suggesting that GUN1 plays a role in regulating chloroplast
After further analysis, the team unexpectedly found that GUN1 partners with another protein, MORF2 (an essential component of the plant RNA editing complex), to affect the efficiency of RNA editing during chloroplast-to-nucleus communication in damaged chloroplasts
. Greater activity of MORF2 led to widespread editing changes as well as defects in chloroplast
and leaf development even under normal growth conditions (see image).
While the short-term kleptoplastic species are usually located in close association with their food algae, some of the larger long-term kleptoplastic species are frequently found away from their chloroplast
sources, even on bare substrate (Krug et al., 2016; Tanamura and Hirose, 2016) or on algae that they do not consume (Middlebrooks et al., 2014).
The cytosol was defined as the region excluding the chloroplast
. The Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the Gaussian distribution of the data, and Pearson's skewness test was used to determine the skewness of the data set using GraphPad Prism 7.4.
Additionally, 3 trees were randomly selected from each treatment group and 3 leaves per plant were collected to measure the tissue microstructure of the leaves and the chloroplast
ultrastructure of the palisade tissue.
Kamran Azim had already reported mango chloroplast
genome (the green plant cells) almost ten years back.
Other plants, like ferns, prefer indirect sunlight as they typically having more chloroplast
to make use of every last bit of sunlight.
Here, we describe the effects of transient changes in the micro-weather conditions on the total protein and starch content, and chloroplast
structure and positioning, using a combination of classical structural analysis and histochemical techniques.
Three genomes exist in plant cells: nuclear, chloroplast
, and mitochondrial.
genomes in angiosperms are mostly circular DNA molecules ranging from 115 to 165 kb in length .
Sudden blasts of intense sunlight are dangerous; an overload can lead to chemical scorching in a plant's light-catching chloroplasts
. So when the sun's movement or a toss from a breeze suddenly exposes a chloroplast
to more sunlight than it can handle, a protection system kicks in.