chordoma

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Related to chordomas: chondrosarcomas

chordoma

a rare congenital tumor of the brain.
See also: Cancer
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Traditionally, chordomas are considered radioresistant.3,7 Although, the curative doses of radiation therapy which should at least be in the 70 Gy range, are higher than the tolerable dose for spinal cord, still radiation is valuable particularly in cases where complete excision could not be carried out.
Much rarer primary tumors are schwannomas of other cranial nerves: of the trigeminal nerve, of the facial nerve, or of the caudal cranial nerves; paragangliomas, chordomas, chordosarcomas, arachnoid or neurenteric cysts, dermoid tumors, and metastases5.
Chordomas are tumors that arise from the osseous spine and skull base and comprise 2-4% of all bone cancers.
Steroidogenic Factor 1.--Recent studies have shown the transcription factor steroidogenic factor 1 is an extremely sensitive marker at identifying adrenal cortical neoplasms (ranging from 85% to 100%) and, furthermore, exhibits 100% specificity at discriminating these neoplasms from other tumors with clear cell morphology, such as renal cell carcinoma, ovarian clear cell carcinoma, and chordomas (176,177) This nuclear marker is identified at high levels in sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary and at lower levels in testicular sex cord-stromal tumors.
INTRODUCTION: Chordomas are generally slow growing malignant neoplasms of presumed notochordal origin.
Proton beam therapy is a highly targeted type of radiotherapy that can treat hard-to-reach cancers, such as spinal tumours (chordomas), with a lower risk of damaging the surrounding tissue and causing side-effects.
Finally, since a positive stain for brachyury was also demonstrated in extra-axial chordomas [12, 30, 31], immunohistochemistry against this protein may be used in order to distinguish chordomas arisen in the soft tissues towards histological mimickers such as myoepithelioma [12, 30, 31], which is of striking importance due to the tendency to grow and recur of the former.
(1) The differential diagnosis of lesions in this area includes congenital cholesteatomas, meningiomas, schwannomas, apical petrous abscesses, carotid aneurysms, glomus tumours, metastasis, lymphomas, chordomas and histiocytosis.
Although chordomas are slow growing, they can cause pain, paralysis, problems with vision, swallowing and death.
Intracranial tumors: * pituitary adenomas * acoustic neuromas * meningiomas * chordomas * chondrosarcomas * glial tumors * metastases tumors 2.