benefit for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or for the choreiform
(8) Depletion of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a primary inhibitive neurotransmitter within the basal ganglia in conjunction with non-ketotic hyperglycemia is felt to potentially account for the choreiform
and ballistic kinetic movements, though the typical unilateral involvement is yet to be explained.
In neurological examination, erratic, rapid and involuntary choreiform
movements in the distal parts of extremities, predominantly in upper extremities and especially on the left side, "milkmaid's grip" and mild hypotonia in both hands were observed.
A 63-year-old Caucasian male presented with a one-week history of uncontrolled choreiform
movements of his left upper extremity.
2013 Genomic chr3:50418428 chr3:50402595 position chr3:50402577 cDNA c.782C>T c.3119A>G change (a) c.3137T>C Protein p.Pro261Leu p.Leu1040Pro change (a) p.Leu1046Pro Sex Male 2 Males, 1 Female Seizure Onset 7 months 20-60 days Epileptic + + Encephalopathy Developmental + + delay Cerebellar + + atrophy Refractory + + seizures Seizure types Absence, atonic, Atonic, clonic, tonic, tonic- tonic clonic EEG 2.5-3 Hz frontally Slow background predominant rhythm with generalized spike multifocal spikes and wave and slow waves discharges Other features Status Axial hypotonia, epilepticus, choreiform
hypotonia, tremor movements, no eye and ataxia, contact atypical eye movements Pippucci et al.
He developed confusion and disorientation and choreiform
movements of both hands on day 5.
To the best of our knowledge, our cases represent the first descriptions of nivolumab-induced autoimmune encephalitis manifesting as choreiform
movements as well as a GAD65 antibody positive autoimmune encephalitis.
About 3 months before admission, she had episodes of choreiform
At the moment of discharge to a special unit for rare diseases, she was euthymic, with proper conduct and without choreiform
movements, although she still presented residual symptoms, namely, apathy, cognitive impairment, and overvalued ideas of ruin, conditioning severe limitations in her daily life, which made it impossible to live without continuous support.
FDA-approved treatments finally arrived in 2017, but the recognition of the abnormal oro-buccolingual or facial choreiform
movements remain low (and the use of the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale to screen for TD has faded since second-generation antipsychotics were introduced).
Her neurological status was predominated by choreiform
movements, along with discrete weakness of the left hand, atypical left plantar response, and dysmetria of the left hand.
movement disorder, epilepsy, neuroacanthocytosis, neuropathy