Long non-coding RNA LINC00261 suppresses cell proliferation and invasion and promotes cell apoptosis in human choriocarcinoma
The great majority (approximately 95%) of primary testicular tumors, including seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, YST, choriocarcinoma
, and others, are of germ cell origin, and accurate subtyping is important for proper management and prognosis.
One study found that TBBPA up-regulates aromatase expression and activity in human choriocarcinoma
cells for up to 72 h in vitro (Honkisz and Wojtowicz 2015).
, trophoblastic cells stain for HCG, CD10 and cytokeratin, but are negative for EMA.
Rare causes include PA of the uterine artery, arteriovenous malformations, C/S delivery and choriocarcinoma
Table 1: Morphological classification of ovarian neoplasms Sest Germ cell Sex cord stromal Metastatic Serous Teratoma: Granulosa cell Krukernberg/drop Mature/ immature Mucinous Dysgerminoma Fibrous tumor Loco-regional metastasis Endometrioid Endodermal sinus sclerosing stromal cell (yolk sac) cell Clear cell Choriocarcinoma
sertoli-stromal cell (leydig) Brenner Embryonal cell Steroid cell Undifferentiated Struma ovarii
The histological type observed in patients with undescended testicle is seminoma (43-90%) and yolk sac tumor, teratocarcinoma and choriocarcinoma
(10-57%) have also been reported (3, 6).
is a rapidly growing, highly invasive and widely metastasizing human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-producing epithelial tumor with differentiation towards a villous trophoblast phenotype.
GlobalData's clinical trial report, "Choriocarcinoma
(Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia) Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2016" provides an overview of Choriocarcinoma
(Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia) clinical trials scenario.
Common tumor markers associated with germ cell malignancies Benign Dysgerminoma Immature Endodermal teratoma teratoma sinus tumor AFP - - +/- ++ HCG - +/- - - LDH - ++ - +/- Estradiol - +/- +/- - PLAP * - ++ - - Embryonal Nongestational tumor choriocarcinoma
AFP +/- - HCG ++ ++ LDH +/- +/- Estradiol +/- - PLAP * - - ++ Present +/- Occasionally present, reported - Not present at discriminatory levels or reported outside of case reports * placental alkaline phosphatase Source: Berek & Hacker's Gynecologic Oncology, Comprehensive Gynecology, Cancer Treat Rev.
Literature reports the most common components of such tumors as dysgerminoma (80%), EST (Endodermal Sinus Tumor) (70%), immature teratoma (%53), choriocarcinoma
(20%), and embryonal carcinoma (16%).
More than 60% of all tumors presented in advance stage with the exception of choriocarcinoma
cases which are all found in late stages.