Acthar Gel is FDA-approved for the treatment of severe acute and chronic allergic and inflammatory processes involving the eye and its adnexa such as: keratitis, iritis, iridocyclitis, diffuse posterior uveitis and choroiditis
, optic neuritis, chorioretinitis and anterior segment inflammation.
The other 3 cases showed "early Hypofluorescence with late staining" characteristic of serpiginous choroiditis
More severe and uncommon complications include panuveitis, optic neuritis, central retinal artery occlusion, multifocal choroiditis
, and neuroretinitis; exudative retinal detachments have also been described (10, 13, 14, 15).
Ocular brucellosis is a rare type of the disease and manifests most commonly with uveitis, choroiditis
, keratitis, optic neuritis, and optic neuropathy (5-9).
Otherwise, there were no significant differences between groups with regard to the presence of an ocular hypertony, multifocal choroiditis
, CSME, vasculitis, and papilledema.
proposed the definition of "typical" CS, with the ocular inflammation in addition to cochleovestibular symptoms, and "atypical" CS characterized by (a) ocular lesions other than interstitial keratitis (conjunctivitis, scleritis, iritis, choroiditis
, subconjunctival, or retinal hemorrhage), (b) a delay of more than 2 years from the onset of ocular and cochleovestibular symptoms, and (c) systemic manifestations, including cardiovascular, neurological, and gastrointestinal symptoms .
(1) Ocular manifestations can be found in 25% of patients with RA, and include keratoconjunctivitis sicca, peripheral corneal ulceration, keratitis, episcleritis, scleritis, choroiditis
, and retinal detachments.
 Ocular TB has been described in HIV-infected patients with disseminated TB affecting both the anterior and posterior segments of the eye with a variety of presentations that include: vitritis, retinal vasculitis, optic neuritis, choroiditis
and choroidal tubercules.
A complete clinical response to the treatment was assumed in those patients whose visual acuity was normal in both eyes and showed absence of inflammatory findings in the ocular fundus exam (inflammatory cells in the anterior chamber, vitritis, and choroiditis
) or absence of macular/choroidal thickening in optical coherence tomography (OCT).
(9.) Kuznetcova TI, Sauty A, Herbort CP Uveitis with occult choroiditis
due to Mycobacterium kansasii: limitations of interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) tests (case report and mini-review on ocular non-tuberculous mycobacteria and IGRA cross-reactivity).